When? July 21,1861

Where? Manassas (Bull Run to the Union) in Northern VAbull_run.jpg

Generals? Irvin McDowell and P.G.T Beauregard

  • first major land battle of the Civil War
  • near the Railroad junction of Manassas
Random Fact: people actually went to watch the battle with picnic lunches
  • General Irvin McDowell was in command of the Union army (about 30,000 men)
    • Union divided into 4 or 5 divisions commanded by Tyler, Hunter, Heintzelman, Miles and Runyan is the 5th
    • mostly 90-day volunteers recruited by President Lincoln after Fort Sumter
  • P.G.T Beauregard commanded the Confederate army of the Potomac and General Johnston commanded the Army of the Shenandoah
    • 2 "armies" equal numbers of McDowell's army
    • no division structure and 13 brigades
    • Leaders of the brigades were Bonham, Ewell, Jones, Longstreet, Cocke, Early, Holmes, Kershaw, Evans, Jackson, Bartow, Bee, Smith and the last was a cavalry brigade under Stuart

The Battle stonewall.jpg

  • McDowell's troops marched to Bull Run but Confederates were guarding Union Mills and Stone Bridge (two days before)
  • Union troops were sent north toward Sudley Springs Ford
  • the battle began at 5:30AM with the first shots of the day
  • General McDowell and his troops crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederates on Matthews Hill
    • Confederates fled to Henry Hill
  • the Confederate brigades came together to try to keep away the Union troops but could not hold them off for too long
  • General Thomas Jackson earned the name "Stonewall"
    • General Bee pointed to him and yelled "There stands Jackson like a stone wall!" as the Union and Confederates tried to get each other off of Henry Hill
  • McDowell's troops were forced to withdrawal once they were attacked by more Confederate troops
  • Confederate armies did not follow the Union army because they were very disorganized and tired
  • Confederate President Jefferson Davis actually arrived at the battlefield just as the fight ended


The Outcome

  • Confederate Victory
  • about 4,700 casualties total (killed, wounded, captured, or missing)
    • about 2,950 of the Union army
    • about 1,750 of the Confederate army
      • General Bartow and Bee were killed
  • the Union realizes that the war will be long and hard


American History (our Textbook)
First Battle of Bull Run with battle map
First Battle of Manassas
more on First Battle of Manassas