Directions:Below are a list of terms, for a fun review of chapter 3 try to recall the proper definitions for each term. Once you have tried your best, check your answers with the Answer Key (terms are in order), located at the end of the page. Happy reviewing!

1) Indentured servant
2) Slave trade
3) Midwife
4) Enlightenment
5) Great Awakening
6) Puritanism
7) The middle passage
8) Boom and Bust Cycle
9) Cash Crop
10) Peter Hasenclever
11) Merchant Class
12) British Navigation Acts
13) Triangular trade
14) Consumerism
15) Stono Rebellion
16) Participatory Democracy
17) Salem Witch Trials
18) Dutch Reformed
19) John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield
20) Jonathan Edwards
21) New Lights
22) Old Lights
23) Natural laws
24) Poor Richard's Almanack
25) John Peter Zenger’s Trail

Indentured servant: A person who came to America and was placed under contract to work for another over a period of time, usually seven years, especially during the 17th to 19th centuries. Generally, indentured servants included redemptioners, victims of religious or political persecution, persons kidnapped for the purpose, convicts, and paupers. A person who is bonded or contracted to work for another for a specified time, in exchange for learning a trade or for travel expenses (as to America)
Slave trade: The business or process of procuring, transporting, and selling slaves, especially black Africans to the New World prior to the mid-19th century. (The transportation of slaves from Africa to North American and South America between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Congress banned the importing of slaves into the United States in 1808.)
Midwife: A person trained to assist women in childbirth.
Enlightenment: A philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
Great Awakening: the series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies, especially in New England, lasting from about 1725 to 1770.

Puritanism: Scrupulous moral rigor, especially hostility to social pleasures and indulgences- the practices and doctrines of the Puritans.
The middle passage: the forcible passage of African people from Africa to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade
Boom and Bust Cycle: The upward and downward trends of a market economy, distorts prices of goods and services.
Cash Crop: any crop that is considered easily marketable, as wheat or cotton- a crop for direct sale in a market, as distinguished from a crop for use as livestock feed or for other purposes (tobacco).
Peter Hasenclever: German ironmaster, created the largest industrial enterprise anywhere in English North America in 1864.
Merchant Class: In the mid 1800’s entrepreneurs made up this class. Sold colonial products as furs, timber, and American-built ships and even developed illegal markets.
British Navigation Acts: A series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies in beginning in 1651.
Triangular trade: The American colonies exported raw materials (agricultural products, furs, and others) to Britain and Europe and imported manufactured goods in return. But while that explanation is accurate, it is not complete, largely because the Atlantic trade was not a simple exchange between America and Europe, but a complex network of exchanges involving the Caribbean, Africa, and the Mediterranean.
Consumerism: The theory that a progressively greater consumption of goods is economically beneficial.
Stono Rebellion: Uprising in South Carolina in 1739, largest slave rebellion in the colonies until the American Revolution.
Participatory Democracy: Individual participation by citizens in political decisions and policies that affect their lives, especially directly rather than through elected representatives

Salem Witch Trials: Trials held in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 that led to the execution of twenty people for allegedly practicing witchcraft. The trials are noted for the hysterical atmosphere in which they were conducted; many townspeople were widely suspected of witchcraft on flimsy evidence.
Dutch Reformed: Of or pertaining to a Protestant denomination, founded by Dutch settlers in New York in 1628 and renamed the Reformed Church in America in 1867.

John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield: Church of England evangelists who by popular preaching stimulated the 18th-century Protestant revival throughout Britain and the British-American colonies.
Jonathan Edwards: Puritan preacher, rejected “easy salvation” emphasized absolute sovereignty of God.
New Lights: Pushed for a renewal of traditional Puritan religion, embraced and combined scientific discoveries with religion, challenged traditional authority and divided congregations. Appealed mostly to older men and few women. Opposed the message of itinerant preachers such as George Whitefield.

Old Lights: Traditional religious thinking, suspicious of the revivals (and their seeming threat to authority), wanted to suppress them.
Natural laws: A principle or body of laws considered as derived from nature, right reason, or religion and as ethically binding in human society
Poor Richard's Almanack: A collection of periodicals (each one was called Poor Richard or Poor Richard Improved) by Benjamin Franklin, issued from 1732 to 1757. They contain humor, information, and proverbial wisdom, such as " Early to bed and early to rise/ Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."
John Peter Zenger’s Trail:Awakened by the Enlightenment and salutary neglect, America instilled the concept of self- government. Colonial assemblies began to assume the powers of Parliament, and limited the power of the colonial governors and provincial governments began to act independently.


salemexamof.jpgAUTHOR- T.H. Matteson, American painter from New York who
generally painted religious scenes.
PLACE AND TIME- 1853, Salem Massachusetts
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE- One must know the Salem Witch Trials were a time in which many innocent people were hung as “witches” largely because Puritans were afraid of the trends away from religion at the time.
AUDIENCE- Puritans
REASON- There was an overwhelming amount of hysteria in the town of Salem.
THE MAIN IDEA- Matteson shows the power of pointing a finger at someone in this picture and the over dramatics of the people that led to false convictions.
SIGNIFICANCE- The witch trials in Salem were a time of false accusation. It illustrates just how ridiculous the “examinations” of the accused were in order to be condemned. Once accused, the person is essentially dead.


AUTHOR- Online blogger by name of “Steph.”
PLACE AND TIME - 2007, America’s economy
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE- One must know that “boom and bust cycles” occurred in colonial America.
AUDIENCE- Stock market investors
REASON- It is important to know when to buy or sell goods and services (even in colonial America) and by understanding the “boom and bust cycles” of American economy, this can be predicted.
THE MAIN IDEA- Boom and bust cycles are still occurring in today’s economy.
SIGNIFICANCE- Simplifies the confusing up and down trends of a market economy in comparison to years and time.

African_slave_trade.jpgAUTHOR- Pearson Education Inc. They have “the most widely trusted and respected programs in educational and professional publishing, and offer the most comprehensive range of educational programs, in all subjects, for every age and level of student, from preK-12 through higher education and on into professional life.”
PLACE AND TIME- Created in 2003 by Pearson’s. It shows the slave trade route areas; North and South America, Africa and Europe (1500-1870).
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE- The triangular trade route was a complex system that shipped slaves from Africa to many different places in the Western hemisphere of the World.
AUDIENCE- People studying slavery and the transportation routes of slaves.
REASON- It shows the many places slaves were traded and what country colonized the area, making the triangular trade route easier to understand.
THE MAIN IDEA-The slave trade was heavy in South and North America from 1500-1870.
SIGNIFICANCE- It illustrates a complex system