Chapter 30 Vocab

and AP parts
Keynesian Economics- An economic theory that advocates active policy responses by the public sector.

AFL-CIO - The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations is a national trade union center.

Antibiotics - Medicines that cure diseases (i.e. penicillin and the Salk Vaccine).

DDT - Chemicals, such as this pesticide, were also invented in this time period.

UNIVAC - The first computer created in the United States of America.

Hydrogen Bomb- Or the H-bomb is an atomic bomb the explodes due to the nuclear fision of hydrogen isotopes.

sputnik - The first satellite in the Cold War. It was built by Russia and instigated another step in the technological battle between the United States and Russia.

The Apollo Program - The American response to Sputnik. Apollo 11 was the first to land on the moon. It contained Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins.

"Consensus" - A collective thought or group sentiment.

Interstate Highways - Built by Eisenhower and still exist today!

"Levittown" - This town (started by the Levitts), among others, built houses specifically designed for veterans of war and their families. Thus began the block-like building structure that dominated most of America at that time.

Sierra Club - The oldest environmental club in the United States. It was founded by John Muir in 1892.

"Payola" scandals - The offering, giving, receiving, and/or soliciting of music that influenced the public by Alan Freed. This ended his career as a famous DJ and rock n' roll supporter. It also decreased the popularity of rock n' roll music.

The Other America - An influential study of poverty in America.

Little Rock - Racial segregation issues. A group of nine African American children were prevented admission to Little Rock High. After finally being allowed in, the kids needed guards to walk them to and from school and white citizens screeched lynching threats at them. The students remained at school, however and became known as the "Little Rock Nine." It was on of the most important parts of African American struggle for equality in the United States.

Montgomery Bus Boycott - A political and Social protest against racial prejudice in public transportation. Remember Rosa Parks! She took the public transportation people to court and won! The Supreme Court declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws of segregated busing to be unconcstitutional.

Federal Highway Act of 1956 - Other wise known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act. It was the largest publics works project up to that point.

"Massive Retaliation" - A doctrine that called for countering aggression with destructive power. This did include nuclear weaponry.

"Brinkmanship" - Pushing the Soviet Union to the brink of war to exact concessions.

Dien Bien Phu - In early 1954, French troops became surrounded in a seige in this village. The US refused to directly intervene in Vietnam. This marked the end of French assistance in the war.

AP PARTS


Doc_B,_1.jpgDoc B.
Author:
The author is President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Eisenhower was an ex-military general in WWII and in the Cold War was a strong proponent of Containment. The author’s point of view is that of a president worried about the future of his country.

Place and Time:
the document was produced in 1961 in Washington DC as the farewell address of President Eisenhower as he left office. The document might stress the importance of unity and nationalism in the United States, without too much stress on a large military. It would stress these things because Eisenhower was worried about the way the world was turning with the Cold War

Prior Knowledge:
Doc._B,_2.jpgEisenhower faced a lot of Cold War troubles dealing with a post WWII society and balancing a not too forceful or engaging foreign policy. Eisenhower worried about the growing strength of the USSR and feared a strong competitor to the US; he also wanted to stop the spread of Communism but avoided direct confrontations. However, Eisenhower swore to protect states threatened by Communism by military force if it came to it. Mainly, however, Eisenhower just used economic aid to help those under the threat of Communism

Audience:
the speech was created for the American public and for Congress; this means it should be a fairly reliable source.

Reason:
The speech was produced to address what Eisenhower thought were the needs of the nation. He wanted to leave his country well prepared for what was to come, and share his opinions on how things should be run. The source is definitely going to be written with a persuasive tone and so may not be reliable in documenting the downfalls of the Eisenhower Administration or the benefits to a strong military. It would not be very reliable in showing the pros of massive investment in other defense industries either.

The Main Idea:
The source wants to warn the American public and Congress against a deficit in defense spending. Eisenhower makes note of the fact that the defense industry is taking up way too much of Americans’ livelihood in terms of money and time. People’s incomes all go straight into the military and many people are employed by it. Eisenhower thinks it is getting too big and someone needs to stop its growth before it gets out of hand. Eisenhower makes note of the fact that the government is taking over the freedom and intellectual curiosity of individuals by contracting out rights to invent things. He thinks it will stagnate our prosperity if it keeps up.

Significance:

Doc_B,_3.jpg

The source is a vivid image of all that makes Eisenhower. He describes his thoughts on the US and it gives the U.S. a basic plan to follow in the proceeding years. Eisenhower keeps the peace that will follow and never erupt into full fledged war with his distaste for large extensive forces.










Doc. C
Author: Doc_C,_1.jpg
the document was written by Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Earl Warren. Warren was a strong liberal reformist and his Warren Court decided many cases towards the expansion of civil liberties. The author’s point of view is one of a liberal agenda aimed at reconfiguring the nation; Warren knows he has the power to change history, and change it he does.
Place and Time:
the source was produced in 1954 by the Supreme Court of the United States in the courts of Washington DC. This item was particularly significant in American history because of its implications later on. Any decision of the Supreme Court was bound to have a huge effect.
Prior Knowledge:
The 1960s were a time of significant reform. It was the first generation of black people that were beginning to be essentially treated about the same as whites, (at least in some areas). Martin Luther King Jr. Made his speech in this era and it was all about civil reform segregation. This means the item is very reliable seeing as it had to be upright in its truthfulness.
Audience:
the source was created for Congress and the President to understand the decision made by the Warren Court, although it would be released to the American public as well. The document was an opinion paper, and Warren must have known it would receive some criticism, but the paper is well thought out and will not turn down on its point. It ought to have been very reliable.
Reason:Doc_C,_2.jpg
The source was produced as a means to communicate a landmark decision to Congress and the American Public in a controversial case about.
The main idea:
The source is trying to convey the fact that African Americans cannot be receiving an equal education if their public education is segregated.
Significance:
This source is extremely important because it illustrated a significant change in policy of the American public education system and forced all state governments to integrate their schools with “all due haste”. It changed America forever and Warren will be forever remembered as the liberal reformer of the 1950s and 1960s.












Doc_D,_1.jpgDoc_D,_2.jpg
Author:
the author of the poem is Malvina Reynolds. I don’t have any background information on the author, but it seems like she’s known for satirical work disclaiming fundamental facets of American society. Her point of view is that of a disillusioned poet who is frustrated by America’ growing conformity.
Place and Time:
The source was produced in the United States in 1962. One can infer from this information that the poem is either embracing America’s unity or is bashing conformity (a popular movement in the 1960s).
Prior Knowledge:
In any day and age creative literary works can have a more poignant meaning than nonfiction because the meaning can be interpreted in so many ways. The fact that Reynolds wrote a poem shows that she wanted to have a powerful effect. I also know that the people of the States were getting frustrated by a lack of opportunity in a seemingly perfect world.
Audience:
The poem was written for the American public as a whole, but it particularly appealed to the growing generation of dissenters, namely youth, that did not feel connected to the world of their parents. This poem definitely has a negative swing to it and is by no means impartial when presenting Reynolds’s opinion on conformity.
Reason:
The source was produced as an outlet for Reynolds’s negative feelings to be let out. It also provided a rallying point for other dissenters in American society. It was also created to show the suburban middle class how ridiculous it is because of its lack of individuality.
The Main Idea:
The source is trying to convey the opinion that American society is becoming way too conformed and that this horrible trend can be blamed on the suburban middle class.
Significance:
This source is important because it shows that even y the early 1960s people were becoming disillusioned by the functionality of American society. It is a perfect image of the American counterculture and its thoughts.