Chapter 33 Vocab


High interest rates - Carter appointed G. William Miller and Paul Volcker (conservative economists) to head the Federal Reserve Board, ensuring a policy of high interest rates, by 1980 interest rates reached a record high.

Camp David Accords - A peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. Carter invited Sadat to a conference at Camp David in 1978 and escorted the leaders into the White House to announce an agreement on the framework for the peace treaty, later signed. This was one of Carter's greatest achievements.

Iranian Revolution - The Shah was supported by the United States in hopes to make the nation a bulwark against the Soviet Union, though the Shah had internal issues. Iranians resented the authoritarian tactics which the Shah maintained their autocratic rule, produced a powerful revolutionary movement. And in 1979, the Shah fled the country.

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Rise of the "Sunbelt" - A widely discussed demographic phenomenon in the 1970s was the Sunbelt. A collection of regions that emerged together in the postwar era to become the most dynamically growing parts of the country. It was the Southeast (Florida), the Southwest (Texas), and most of all California.

Sagebrush Rebellion - Emerged in parts of the West in the late 1970s, was mobilized conservative opposition to environmental laws and restrictions on development. Wanted to portray the West as a victim of the government.

Suburban Conservatism - Most militant conservative communities in America were mostly suburbs. They attracted people who wished to flee the problems and the diversity of cities. They preferred more stable, homogeneous surroundings. The suburbs reinforced the conservative view that other parts of the nation were abandoning.

Evangelical Christianity - New religious enthusiasm was on the rise, but the most important impulse of the revival was the evangelical Christianity. Carried many of the basis from Christianity however had the common belief of personal conversion ("born again") through communication with god. It has been the dominant form of Christianity in America through much of its history.

Moral Majority and the Christian Coalition - The "Christian right" has become a very powerful political force. Jerry Falwell launched a movement called the Moral Majority which attacked the rise of "secular humanism" a term that many conservatives evangelicals used to call the rejection of religion in American culture.

Ronald Reagan - New generation of conservative leaders, grew up in a small cottage in Illinois. Was first an actor, then became a corporate spokesman in the early 1950s for General Electric. Made a memorable Goldwaters speech on the television.

Proposition 13 - As the tax revolt began in the late 1970s, the first successful major citizens tax revolt in California was with Proposition 13, a referendum question on the state ballot rolling back property tax rates.

1980 Election - Reagan vs. Carter vs. John Anderson, Reagan had a sweeping victory with 51% of the vote.

Neo-conservatives - Very influential, a group of intellectuals gave to the firm base among opinion, people with access to the most influential public forums for ideas, where the neo-conservatives. They were sympathetic to the complaints and demands.

Populist Conservatives - The populist conservatives expressed the concerns that outsiders, non-elites, traditionally voiced in American society, an opposition the centralized power and influence.

"Reaganomics" - The Reagan Campaign promised to restore the economy to health by an experiment known as "supply-side" economics or "Reaganomics". It operated from the assumption that the woes of the American economy were in large part a result of excessive taxation. Which then left inadequate capital available to investors to stimulate growth.

"Deregulation" - Those appointed by Reagan were fanned out into the executive branch and were committed to reducing the role of government in American economic life.

Soaring National Debt - Reagan promised a balanced budget though deficits had accumulated more debt in the 8 years of his presidency than the American government had in its entire history.

Welfare Benefits Cut - The debt particularly was attributed to costs of entitlement programs with rises in health care prices.

SDI - Reagan proposed an ambitious military program the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through the use of lasers and satellites an effective shield against missiles would be created. Soviets said it would elevate the arms race to new dangerous levels, though Reagan's administration said it would make the nuclear war obsolete.

Reagan Doctrine - The support to opponents of communism anywhere in the world, whether they had soviet ties or not became the policy known as the Reagan Doctrine.

Mikhail Gorbachev - Gorbachev transformed Soviet politics with two initiatives. Glasnost (openness) which was the dismantling of repressive mechanisms that were conspicuous features of Soviet life over the century. The other, perestrika (reform) which was an effort to restructure the Soviet economy.

Tiananmen Square - China called for greater democratization against communism, they led a mass movement in Tiananmen Square in Beijing where demonstrates were massacred.external image moz-screenshot-2.png
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Dissolution of the USSR - Communism began to collapse in the Soviet Union, Gorbachev returned to power but the parties were injured. Many of the republics claimed their independence.

Savings and Loan Crisis - Industry was in chaos, the government was required to step in and prevent collapse. As banks were expanding corruptly and recklessly. Government insurance covered assets and savings and loan depositors.

Invasion of Kuwait - Armed forces of Iraq invaded Kuwait. The Bush administration led other nations to campaign against Iraq to force them out of Kuwait. The Bush administration has successfully persuaded almost all of the important governments including the Soviet Union to join in a trade embargo of Iraq. Then air forces began a massive bombardment of Iraqi forces in Kuwait which continued for 6 weeks.

Bill Clinton - Five term governor of Arkansas Bill Clinton emerged after Bush's high populairty and the decline of democrats to run. His campaign issued broad economic issues.
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Ross Perot - A Texan billionaire who became an independent candidate promising tough uncompromising leadership to deal with the fiscal crisis and other problems. As he began to face hostile scrutiny from the Media, he withdrew.

Sources:
United stated History- Preparing for the Advanced Placement Exam (AMSCO)