Vocabulary
Recession of 1923
– A minor recession during the title year. After it ended the American economy skyrocketed.
Radio – Technology that became popular during the 1920’s due to improvements (ie, it became able to transmit sound over medium distances).
Reginald Fessenden – Made the improvements to the radio. Theory of modulation.
Vannevar Bush – MIT researcher who created the first analog computer.
Howard Aiken – Improved the computer to point it could multiply 11 digit numbers in 3 seconds.
Gregor Mendel – Catholic Monk who performed experiments on the hybridization of vegetables. Revealed the way in which genes were arranged on a chromosome.
U.S. Steel – The nation’s largest corporation.
General Motors – the largest automobile corporation and 5th largest American corporation during the 1920’s.
William Durant – Founder of GM, ran the business on a ‘personal management’ style.
Alfred P. Sloan– Created the modern management system that made it easier for GM to manage its subsidiaries.
Trade Association – A national organization created by various members of an industry to encourage coordination in production and marketing techniques.
Welfare Capitalism – Type of management where employees are treated well and given benefits. Technique used to eliminate unionism.
Henry Ford – Employed the welfare Capitalism theory, gave higher than usual wages and instituted paid vacations.
Company Unions – unions that were created by individual corporations and had essentially no power.
American Federation of Labor – Union that was dedicated to organizing workers based on skills.
William Green – President of the AFL, was committed to peaceful cooperation with employers.
Pink-Collar jobs – Low paying service occupation jobs designated for women.
Great Migration – The migration of African Americans from the rural south to the north after 1914.
The Brotherhood for Sleeping Car Porters – A virtually all-black union dedicated to protecting black rights, founded in 1925.
A. Philip Randolph – The leader of the Brotherhood for Sleeping Car Porters.
Issei– Japanese immigrants
Nisei – Japanese American-born children.
Open Shop – a business in which joining a union was not an option.
American Plan – The name for the crusade for open shop.
Parity – A complicated formula that ensured farmers would earn back least their production costs.
McNary-Haugen Bill – the bill that led the fight for parity, was passed by the houses twice, but vetoed by Coolidge both times.
N. W. Ayer and J. Walter Thompson – the first advertising and public relations companies.
The Man Nobody Knows – One of the most popular books of the 1920’s, written by advertising executive Bruce Barton.
The Jazz Singer – the first movie with sound, starring Al Johnson.
Motion Pictures Association – A trade association that hired to former post-master general Will Hays to head it, imposed standards on films.
Will Hays – Former post-master general and head of the MPA, used his powers broadly to impose conformity on films for years.
KDKA – The first commercial radio station in America, founded in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania in 1920.
National Broadcasting Company – The first national radio network, which was formed in 1927.
Henry Emerson Fosdick – The most influential spokesman for liberal Protestantism, was the pastor of Riverside Church in New York.
Abundant Religion – The 1926 book by Fosdick which argued that Christianity “furnish an inward spiritual dynamic for radiant and triumphant living.”
John B. Watson – The leader of the new behaviorist sect of psychologists.
The “Compassionate Marriage” – an ideology that sparked women spending more time with the friends of her husband, her devoting more attention to cosmetics and fashion, her being less willing for children to come between her husband and herself, and using sex as the ‘culmination of romantic love.’
Margaret Sanger – the pioneer of the birth control movement.
The National Women’s Party – group that pushed for the passing of the Equal Rights Amendment.
League of Women Voters – response to the women suffrage victory.
Sheppard-Towner Act – An act passed by congress that provided federal funds to states to establish pre-natal and child healthcare programs. Terminated in 1929.
The ‘Lost Generation’ – A description of the youth during the WWI era.
A Farewell to Arms – A successful novel by Ernst Hemmingway that expressed the new generation’s contempt for the war (WWI).
‘Debunkers’ – Critics of the modern (1920) society, which included journalist H. L. Mencken.
Famous authors of the time:

· F. Scott Fitzgerald.
· Ernst Hemingway.
· Lewis.
· Thomas Wolfe.
· John Dos Passos.
· Ezra Pound.
· T.S. Elliot.
· Gertrude Stein.
· Edna Ferber.
· Willa Cather.
· William Faulkner.
· Eugene O’ Neill.

John Dewey
Intellectual who advocated reform and kept alive the philosophical tradition of pragmatism and appealed for practical education.
The Harlem Renaissance – A flourishing of African-American culture in New York.
The Cotton Club – A famous nightclub featuring many great jazz musicians.
Langston Hughes – An African American poet who became very famous.
Alan Locke – a leader of the Harlem Renaissance who assembled a collection of African American writings and published them together in 1925 in an anthology called The New Negro.
Prohibition
– The barring of sale and manufacture of alcohol, went into effect in January 1920. Known for a time as the “Noble Experiment.”
The National Immigration Act of 1924 – The act banned immigration from East Asia entirely.
The Birth of a Nation – A movie by D. W. Griffith that glorified the first KKK.
John T. Scopes – A Tennessee educator who agreed to have himself arrested to test the severity of the Tennessee law prohibiting the instruction of anti-Bible ideology (ie, evolution theory) in publicly funded schools.
Teapot Dome Scandal - A scandal involving the rich oil reservers in Teapot Dome, Wyoming in which Albert B. Fall accepted bribes from local businessmen. Andrew Mellon - Secretary of the Treasury, Mellon was a wealthy steel and aluminum tycoon who devoted himself to working for substantial tax reductions on corporate and personal incomes and inheritances.
Herbert Hoover - Commerce Secretary, Hoover encouraged voluntary cooperation in the private sector as the best avenue to stability. Elected president in 1928.


Documents

GG.jpgTITLE: The Great Gatsby
AUTHOR: F. Scott Fitzgerald

PLACE AND TIME: In 1925 Fitzgerald published the Great Gatsby while he lived in Europe, but likely wrote it while living in the states.
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: The book is a social commentary on the decadence and consumerism of the 1920's, which Fitzgerald did not like as he was a part of the "Lost Generation" of writers.
AUDIENCE: Fitzgerald wanted everyone to read his works as he was constantly in debt, though the piece is probably geared toward the growing metropolitan areas.
REASON: To voice opposition to the then-current state of affairs in the United States.
THE MAIN IDEA: Americans were guilty of perpetuating the cycle of materialism that was becoming wide-spread in the 1920's, when all this materialism would do is ruin their lives.
SIGNIFICANCE: This piece clearly demonstrates the feelings of the Lost Generation of writers and intellectuals. Though it sold an average amount of copies, Fitzgerald was not awarded the amount of acclaim that he had thought he was going to recieve, which probably only intensified his resentment of society, just as it led to his increased drinking.

GM_AD.jpg



TITLE: General Motors advertisement
AUTHOR: General Motors

PLACE AND TIME: Published during the 1920's in a magazine distributed in many high caliber cities.
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: GM was a car company that had to find a new managment type, and succeded in doing so thanks to Alfred P. Sloan, that would make expansion a possibility.
AUDIENCE: An advertiser wants everyone to see their ads. The GM advertisers were also trying to expand their business, so everyone, even those who were not literate, were targeted.
REASON: To show everyone in the world GM's wares.
THE MAIN IDEA: So many people already invest in GM and GM benefits so many other businesses, BUY FROM US!
SIGNIFICANCE: This advertisement shows the changed from today's advertising type. Back then straight facts were given, what the company has done, today they show what might possibly happen.

Virginian.jpgTITLE: The Virginian
AUTHOR:
Owen Wister

PLACE AND TIME: First published in 1902, is set in the Wild West, which Wister was enamored with.
PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: The West was an unruly place that was overtaken with failed farms and cattle ranching.
AUDIENCE: All the literate people of the United States.
REASON: Wister was puportedly in love with the west after a hiking trip and wanted to show the clash of his two cultures.
THE MAIN IDEA: Both sides of the Mason-Dixon line will have to make concessions to coalesce into a peaceful, coherent nation.
SIGNIFICANCE: This novel is one of the first novels that truly demonstrate a "romatic" look at the West.