external image monroe-handlen-sketch.jpgKey Terms

  • Protective Tariff - Part of Henry Clay's American System; designed to help American domestic industry by imposing a duty of imported goods, particularly cotton cloth
  • National Road - Government-funded road that connected the Potomac and Ohio Rivers; approved in 1807 and financed by the sale of public lands
  • Steamboats - increased use of steamboats on the Mississppi River revolutionized the transport of manufactured and agricultural goods following the War of 1812
  • Turnpikes - most new roads built at the time were funded by private interests rather than the government, such as Lancaster Turnpike which was funded by the state of Pennsylvania
  • Virginia Dynasty - the series of presidents, beginning with Thomas Jefferson and continuing with Madison and Monroe, who all came from Virginia
  • James Monroe - elected in 1816 during the "Era of Good Feelings"; attempted to minimalize party divisions and enacted the nationalist Monroe Doctrine
  • John Quincy Adams - ran for president in 1824 against Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay; Clay ended up endorsing him, resulting in his victory, and was given the position of Secretary of State, the traditional "stepping stone" to the presidency; many people accused Adams of making a "corrupt bargain" - this plus the negative reaction to his Tariff of 1828 resulted in Adams being a very unpopular president
  • Henry Clay - came to national prominence as one of the congressional "war hawks" prior to the War of 1812; later supported measures such as the American System, Missouri Compromise, and Compromise of 1850
  • Andrew Jackson - a war hero from the War of 1812, his defeat in the election of 1824 resulted in a surge of popular support from those who felt that he should have won; his support of the "common man" helped him to win a decisive victory in the election of 1828
  • Adams-Onís Treaty - treaty with Spain that resulted in America's acquisition of Florida
  • Missouri Compromise - prevented a sectionalist crisis that arose over the admission of Missouri as a state; Missouri became a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state; it was then determined that no slavery would be permitted in any of the territories north of Missouri's southern border (the 36°30' line)
  • The Marshall Court - John Marshall served as chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1801-1835; his decisions sought to increase the power of the judicial branch, the federal government, and private business interests
  • Monroe Doctrine - issued in 1823, this document stated that the Western Hemisphere was solely America's sphere of influence; was a statement of nationalism despite the country lacking the military power to back it up
  • The "Corrupt Bargain" - this term was used to describe accusations that Henry Clay made a deal to support John Quincy Adams as president in exchange for being appointed Secretary of State
  • Tariff of Abominations - otherwise known as the Tariff of 1828, this tariff law was extremely unpopular, particularly with Southerners, and greatly damaged John Quincy Adams's reputation as president
  • Election of 1828 - Andrew Jackson beat John Quincy Adams in this election after gaining considerable popular support as an advocate of the "common man"

Related Documents

Document 1: Speech to Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati

Monroe's Goodwill Tour
Monroe's Goodwill Tour

Author: Monroe, James
Place and Time: Boston, Massachusetts; 4 July 1817
Prior Knowledge - In the summer 0f 1817 president Monroe went on a good will tour around America to promote what he called the era of good feelings.
Audience: The Society of the Cincinnati a group of Revolutionary War veterans.
Reason: To gain public support and spread feelings of prosperity across the nation.
The Main Idea: The veterans of the revolutionary war along with those who fought in it and did not return are a great group of people. They deserve to be honored and celebrated. Now that that time has passed they should rejoice in the prosperity they have earned.
Significance: This was the first time since Washington that a president went on a good will tour. It showed Monroe's beliefs that the nation was experiencing a period of political cooperation and that a two party system was not desirable.

Document 2: To the Inhabitants of the Town of Saco

Saco, Maine
Saco, Maine

Title: To the Inhabitants of the town of Saco
Author: Monroe, James
Place and Time: Boston, Massachusetts; 22 August 1817
Prior Knowledge: The town of Saco is in Maine which was not admitted into the union until 1820. Several provinces in Maine were attacked in the war of 1812 during a time when Monroe was secretary of war.
Audience: The people of Saco, Maine, who had received him very graciously during his good will tour a month prior.
Reason: After the Madison administration's failure to protect Maine during the war of 1812. Monroe was presently surprised by his reception in Saco, Maine. Monroe wrote this letter in order to return these feelings of good will and to show that they had his support.
The Main Idea: As the president Monroe intended to bring the nation a period of extended prosperity.
Significance: This letter shows Monroe's popular appeal throughout the nation.

Document 3: The Monroe Doctrine

Political cartoon depicting the Monroe Doctrine
Political cartoon depicting the Monroe Doctrine

Title: The Monroe Doctrine
Author: Monroe, James
Place and Time: During President Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress, December 2, 1823
Prior Knowledge: At the time many nations around the new world were throwing off their Spanish rulers. America and Great Britain were concerned that if left alone other European countries would dominate the newly independent areas.
Audience: The members of Congress
Reason: To protect emerging nations in Latin America, and protect American interests throughout the region.
The Main Idea: If foreign powers get involved in the western hemisphere it will be seen as an act of aggression towords America.
Significance: One of the early examples of America displaying its power.