Key Terms


  1. Romanticism- An artistic movement that stressed an individual's expression of their emotion and imagination and the experience of joy and goodness in human beings.
  2. Hudson River School- The 1st great school of Americn painters in New York including Frederic Church, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty, and Asher Durand.
  3. James Fenimore Cooper- Author of 30 novels based on suspense, adventure and the American Wilderness. He wrote the "Leatherstocking Tales" which includes The Last of the Mohicans (1826) and The Deerslayer (1841).
    • American Wilderness- The relationship between man and natrue and the challenges of westward expansion.
  4. Walt Whitman- The poet of American democracy whose work was expressed individualism. He wrote the Leaves of Grass in 1855.
  5. Herman Melville- His most famous work is Moby Dick of 1851. He believed that the human spirit was troubled and self-destructive.
  6. Edgar Allen Poe- He wrote mostly sad and disturbing poems. His works include Tamerlane and Other Poems and "The Raven". His work drew out images of individuals rising above the narrow confines of intellect.
  7. Transcendentalism-Theory of the individual based on the distinction between reason and understanding. Goal was being freed of understanding and growth of reason.
    • Reason was the person's innate ability to grasp beauty and truth through giving expression to instincts and emotions and the highest human ability.
    • Understanding was the use of intellect in the artificial and narrow ways imposed by the society and included the repression of instinct.
  8. Ralph Waldo Emerson- The leader and voice of transcendentalists who wrote essays, lectures, and some poetry. He was also a nationalist who wanted American cultural independence.
  9. Henry David Thoreau- A transcendentalist who went to jail in 1856 because of civil disobedience (public refusal to obey unjust law). He believed that people should work towards self-realization by resisting the pressure to conform to the expectations of society.
  10. Brook Farm- An experimental community created by George Ripley in Massachusetts. It gave everyone the opportunity for self-realization by enforcing that all members in the community would share equally in the labor, so that they would share leisure, as leisure was necessary for self-realization.
  11. New Harmony- Community in Indiana founded by Robert Owen in 1825. It was supposed to be a "Village of Cooperation", where every resident worked and lived in total equality, but it became an economic failure.
  12. Margaret Fuller- A transcendentalist who suggested the relationship between toneida.jpghe discovery of the "self" and questioned gender roles. She also wrote Woman in the Nineteenth Century.
  13. Oneida Community- Established in 1848 by John Huphrey Noyes in upstate New York. The residents were called Oneida "Perfectionists" and rejected the traditional notions of family and marriage. They declared that all residents were married to each other, with no permanent ties. They monitored sexual behavior and "liberated" women from the demands of men and family.
  14. Shakers- Founded by "Mother" Ann Lee in 1770s, they were committed to complete celibacy, everyone had to choose the faith voluntarily. They advocated sexual equality, and the idea of a God who had no gender.
    • they "shaked" themselves free of sin, it was some sort of dance they preformed (that's how they got their name)
    • they were motivated to avoid traditional gender roles and create a society protected from chaos and disorder.
  15. Mormons- Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, it was started by Joseph Smith. He began searching for a settlement for him and his community, but failed because of the suspicion of their religious doctrine that included polygamy. Later under the Brigham Young, they established a permanent community at Salt Lake City, Utah
    • Mormons believed in human perfectibility , that everyone could aspire to become a god, since God had once been a man.
    • they did not believe in individual liberty, and created a higly organized social structure, and emphasized family structure.
  16. Charles Grandison Finney- Evangelistic Presbyterian minister who became the most influential revival leader of the 1820s and 1830s. He believed that each person had the potential to gain salvation.
  17. Burned-Over District- The towns in the area surrounding the Erie Canal that had frequent religious awakenings. phrenology.jpg
  18. American Society for the Promotion of Temperance- This organization used revivalism techniques to preach abstinence in 1826. This organization led to the development of the Washington Temperance Society in 1840 which was made up originally of six alcoholics trying to overcome their problem.
  19. Phrenology- The science that believed the shape of a person's skull is an indicator of their character and intelligence. This started in Germany and came to the US in the 1830s through Orson and Lorenzo Fowler.
  20. Horace Mann- An educational reformer that reorganized the Massachusetts school system because he felt that education was the only way to protect the democracy since an educated electorate was needed.
  21. Benevolent Empire- A network of charitable activities that were created to help the handicapped. The Perkins School for the Blind in Boston was the first in the US. PerkinsInsBlind.jpgseneca.jpg
  22. Asylum Movement- This was the creation of asylums for criminals and the mentally ill. Penitentiaries and mental institutions were built to reform and rehabilitate the inmates.
    • The reform of solitary confinement and imposition of silence of work crews faded due to overcrowding.
    • Institutions were also developed for "friendless" women (without families or homes but had chance of building a new life)
  23. Seneca Falls- Women's rights convention organized by Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848. A "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" was written to say that "all men and women are created equal", these women were mostly fighting for the right to vote which would last untill 1920.
  24. Frederick Douglass- He was born a slave in Maryland and escaped to Massachusetts in 1838. He bought his freedom and founded The North Star, an antislavery newspaper. In 1845 he also wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
  25. Amistad Case- Africans on their way for slavery in Cuba seized the Spanish ship in 1839 but the US Navy took the Africans as pirates. The Supreme Court ruled that the Africans were free in 1841 and the antislavery groups funded their way back to Africa.
  26. Harriet Beecher Stowe- She wrote the fiction story of Uncle Tom's Cabin which was published in 1852 as a book. This book was abolitionist propoganda that spread the idea of abolitionism.

DOCUMENTS


Document 1

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Author - The author is Thomas R. Dew, a professor at William and Mary, and his point of view is pro slavery.
Place and Time - It was produced during a debate in the VA legislature, in 1832. During this time, slavery was allowed, though they were predominately used by wealthy landowners to do labor in fields. There had been resistance, such as slave revolts like ones led by Denmark Vesey in 1822, and by Nat Turner in 1831. But some slaves did gain their freedom, although their status was never equal to that of white males.
Prior Knowledge - The South permitted slavery as well as certain border states. Wealth was determined by the amount of land and property one had, and slaves were counted as property. Because of cotton, there was an increase in slaves, as it was labor intensive. Slave life varied from plantation to plantation, but they had numerous skills, ranging from servitude in the house, to construction gangs. Many slaves were sold from the Upper South to the Mississippi Valley, where cotton was rich. To prevent slave revolts, southern legislators added restrictions on the movement and education of slaves.
Audience - the audience included the members of the VA legislature, especially those who did not have an opinion. The members included the elite of society, but maybe also some delegates with a humble past. To persuade the other members, he must show the benefits of slavery and why it should be allowed.
Reason - It was produced to show that slavery should be allowed because it is not something that was just invented, people have been doing it for many years. Even biblical figures, like Moses and Abraham have had slaves. The Bible allows slavery, but it was harsher than it was in the 1800s, so what they're doing is perfectly reasonable.
The Main Idea - Slavery should be allowed because it has been allowed in the past, in the Biblical times, and it even gives order and fidelity to the enslaved.

Significance - This text is important because it shows the opposing side to the slavery debate. Their main point was to keep the existing system because it works for them. The conditions for slaves were so horrible because of this idea that slaves needed order. They revolted against this treatment, to give hope to the other slaves. This drove southern states to enact even harsher laws, which showed even more how evil slavery was.


Document 2


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A - Horace Mann, the first secretary of the Massachussetts State Board of Education, who worked to improve schools for children.
P - This was taken in Massachusetts, in 1848. There was a movement for tax-supported schools that spread rapidly to other states.
P - There was a reform movement during the Jacksonian era to reform schools. It wanted to establish a public school system. They also wanted to teach moral eduation, in order to teach the behavior needed in this emerging society.
A - The audience was intended to be the state board, and the whole public. Since this was to be presented to the state board, he needed to show why public school was good for all of the US.
R - It was produced to show the importance of education, especially in this new society. People who are better educated will be better off. This affects the reliability because people might want an education for their children if it means a better opportunity for them.
T - Everyone has a right to a free education. For a child to grow up and succeed in this society, they have to be intelligent to be prosperous. Stimulating the young will help make this society to prosper.
S - The significance of this document was to show how society was changing, becoming more industrialized. To become a strong, prosperous society, there needed to be strong citizens. Education was the way to strengthen society by teaching children basic literacy. Equally important was the reform in moral education, as religious upbringing influenced this to bring about citizens with good character and virtues.



Document 3


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A - The author is not mention, rather it is a congregation of women who wrote on the Women's Rights Convention. The authors' point of view must have been pro women's rights, or not they would not have been at this convention.
P - This was written in 1846, a couple of years before the Seneca Falls Convention, but there were new definitions of gender roles. In some instances, reformers for women, believed in the antislavery movement too.
P - Family size became bigger due to industrialization. Men left home to work, while women stayed at home to be the caretakers and raise the children. They were important to establish morality in the household.
A - The audience was directed towards women, to persuade them to join the movement. It might have been to show men that they needed to treat them as equals, like they deserved. Some women would have been reluctant to completely rearrange the social order, it wouldn't have been that effective in the beginning of the movement.
R - This report was produced to raise awareness of the inequalities shared by women. If many women share this issue, then it might convince other women to join the cause and fight for their rights.
T - The document lists grievances shared by all women, caused when men take away their natural rights and how he has shaped them to be their subservient and submissive partner.
S - Their main argument is that their rights have been taken away, just like the British did with them in the colonial era. They resented their secondary roles in society, that prevented them from participating in discussions. This redefinition came with industrialization because women were being more and more suppressed, their roles were being defined by males and not by themselves.


Sources:
American History (our textbook)
United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination (AMSCO)
Oneida Community
Perkins School for the Blind
http://www.as.ua.edu/history/new/images/phrenology.jp