Key Terms:
  • Secession = When 11 southern states left the Union from 1860-1861. This was because of rising tensions between the North and the South. States that seceded in 1860 were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisana, Texas. The four states that seceded after the Fort Sumter incident are: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
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  • Crittenden Compromise = A compromise developed by the South in a final attempt to reconcile before the start of the Civil War. It guaranteed the existant of slavery in slave states, it would keep the Fugitive Slave Law, and allow slavery in DC. It would also reestablish the Missouri Compromise. The Rebuplican Party(made up of mainly Northerners) didn't approve the compromise because it was helping to exspand slavery.
  • Fort Sumter = Located in South Carolina. The first fight of the Civil War, which began on April 12th, 1861.
    • Situation: Fort Sumter, an Union fort, was running low on supplies because they were being cut off by southern forces. Lincoln sent supplies down to the Fort, and the Southern forces attacked.
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  • Habeas Corpus = The law which states that a citizen may not be taken from his house unless there is reason or cause, and cannot be punished unless they have a fair trial where the accused is able to tell their side of the story. This was suspended during the civil war by President Lincoln. He ordered Winefield Scott, the head of the military, to arrest anyone who spoke out or acted out against the Union.
    • Ex Parte Milligan = A Supreme court case, the military commission commended Milligan, a Indiana citizen, to death for taking place in copperhead(confederate) activites. He was trying to start a rebellion. Although the Supreme Court didn't address Habeas Corpus directly, they did inforce the fact the Milligan should be tried by the Federal courts.
  • Confederate States of America = The government created by the southern states after they seceded from the Union. In the new government they created a constitution of Confederacy which was similar to the Consitution in the union. It differed from the union Consitution in that it denied Congress the right to levy a protective tariff and to raise money to do internal improvements. The new confederacy placed power in each individual state rather than with the nation. With the creation of a weak government it led to financial problems and in turn they had trouble financing the war.
    • Jefferson Davis = President of the Confederacy, Alexander H. Stephens = Vice President of the Confederacy.
    • civil_war_03.jpgPictured: Jefferson Davis.
  • Anaconda Plan = It was the Union's Plan (General Winfield Scott) to blockade all of the South's major ports to cut them off from supplies they needed. The plan didn't work at first, but when reinstated at the end of the war because of General Grant and General Sherman commands, it was very effective.
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  • New York City Draft Riots = Violent riots that broke out in New York City due to the inforcement of the National Draft Law. Many Irish immigrants went and lynched and killed many African Americans, because they blamed Africans for the war. Also, many African American's houses were burned down. Federal Troops were brought in to disband the riot.
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  • Emancipation Proclamation = On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln said he would free slaves in the Confederacy. And on January 1st, 1863, President Lincoln kept his promise, he freed all slaves in the Confederacy except in Tennessee, West Virginia, and Southern Louisana. There weren't any immediate effects but it was a great stride towards ending slavery.
  • King Cotton Diplomacy = The ideology that both France and Britian relied heavily on the South for their supply of cotton, so they would help the South fight the North. However Britian and France had suppliers from India and Egypt. The King Cotton Diplomacy failed, and Britian and France never helped the South fight.
  • Ironclads = It was new naval technology used during the Civil War. They are iron ships designed to fight. Iron clad ships were made mainly in the North, but the South did produce some as well.
    • Merrimac v. Monitor = Merrimac (southern ship), was destroying Union ships off the coast of Virginia. The Monitor came to stop this and the two ships battled for 5 long hours. It ended in a stalemate. It did, however, but an end to the Merrimac destroying Union ships.
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  • General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse on April 9th, 1965.
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Acts/Admendments/Laws:
  • Homestead Act = (1862) Promoted settlement on the western United States. The government offered 160 acres for free to whoever would live on the land for at least 5 years.
  • Morrill Land Grant Act = (1862) Gave public acreage to state governments, which were sold to finance public education. Many colleges were built during this time.
  • National Bank Acts = Created a new national banking system. Banks were able to join if they had enough capital, and were willing to invest 1/3 of its capital in government securites. In return these banks could use U.S Treasury Notes as currency.
  • Pacific Railway Acts = (1862) Authorized the building of a transcontinental railroad on a northern route to link the west to the east. The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific Companies were the two railroad lines.
  • National Draft Law = (1862) The need for men in the Union Army was high that they insituted a national draft law. It was strongly opposed by mainly immigrants and laborers. For outcome see New York City Draft riots.
  • 13th Admendment = Abolished slavery in all of the Untited States.
  • Confiscation Acts = (1861) People were able to take property, such as slaves, that were owned by a Confederate. The 2nd passed in 1862, said that African Americans could be soldiers, if approved by the President.
  • Confederate Conscription Act = The Confederacy needed more people to fight in the war so they instilled a draft. It was so negitively opposed that it was repealed.

Battles:
  • First Battle of Bull Run/Battle of First Manassas = Union forces attacked Confederate forces at Bull Run Creek in Manassas Junction, Virginia. There main reason for fighting was for the railway station that was located in Manassas. Battle where Stonewall Jackson recieved his name. Confederate Victory.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run/Second Battle of Manassas = Lee attacked the Union Army in northern Virginia, which caused union troops to retreat back to Bull Run. Confederate Victory.
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  • Battle of Antietam = General Lee led the Confederate Army into Maryland. He thought if the Confederate Army won a victory in the North then Britian would back up the South in the Civil War. The Union troops intercepted the Confederate Army at Antietam Creek. Lee could not break through Union forces and was forced to retreat to Virginia. This was the bloodiest battle, that took place in a single day, of the Civil War. Some considerate either to be a stalement or a Union victory.
  • Battle of Gettysburg = General Lee again led the Confederate Army into Union territory, to the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He hoped that if he won on Union territory then the North would have to surrender. The Confederate Army was forced to flee to Virginia. The turning point of the Civil War. Union Victory.
  • Battle of Vicksburg = The Union forces held most of the West by the spring of 1863. On July 4th, the Union Army, led by General Grant, took the city of Vicksburg. The Union now controlled the Missippi River, and were able to instill the Anaconda Plan. Union Victory.
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  • Sherman's March/March to the Sea = A part of the Union Army under General William Tecumseh Sherman's control began a campaign that went from Georgia to South Carolina. They destroyed everything in their path that had to do with the southern economy. They even destroyed Columbia, South Carolina's capital.
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Links:
Information on Secession
Information on Fort Sumter
Information on Habeas Corpus
Information On People Involved in the Civil War
Information on the Anaconda Plan
Information on Ex Parte Milligan
Information on the Merrimac v. the Monitor
Information on Confederate Conscription Act

Two Documents + AP PARTS:

Document 1: The Causes of the Civil War
Author: Alan Brinkley. His opinion does shape the arguement.

Place + Time: It was created recently, in the last decade or so. But it is based on the Civil War which took place from 1860-1865. It affects the meaning because we know more now about the Civil War than in the past.

Prior Knowledge: Before I read the document I knew that historians have been arguing for the longest time about what caused the civil war. Also that the arguement can't be resolved because it is a personal opinion, along with an issue that isn't black and white.

Audiance: It was designed to inform a student or someone researching the Civil War.

Reason: It was created to show historians different view points on the Civil War. Some believe that slavery is the major reason for the Civil War, while others believe that it was the strong sectionalism. On top of that some historians believe that the war was unaviodable, while others believe that if certain things changed then the Civil War could have been avioded.

The Main Idea: The Civil War isn't just black and white. There wasn't just one particular reason for the start of the war. As a matter of fact it was the combonation of multiple issues.

Significance: It helps to protray the reality that the Civil War is much more complicated then just the issue of slavery. There is a lot more research and development that can happen in exploring the Civil War.

Document 2:Baseball and the Civil War
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Author: Alan Brinkley. His opinion isn't expressed during this piece of writing.

Place and Time: This document was created in the last 10 years. The time and place doesn't really effect the documents validity.

Prior Knowledge: Prior knowledge didn't help me in this instance because I don't know much about the history of baseball.

Audience: It was created for sports fans or for historians.

Reason: It was created to inform the reader about the history of baseball, and to tell how baseball was played during the Civil War.

The Main Idea: To prove to the reader that baseball was an important pass time during the Civil War.

Significance: It helps the reader develop a bigger picture of who the soldiers that are fighting in the Civil War. They were all Americans.