Key Terms of Chapter 15
"Lost Cause" -
the name of the Civil War for the Southernors who were devastated by the war. The reflected back on the Confederate leaders and the glorious times of the south before the war.

Emancipation Proclamation - a document isssued by Abraham Lincoln which prohibited slavery in the entire Confederacy. This gave the Union a single fighting cause and aided them in winning the war.

Freedman's Bureau - A program established in 1865 by Congress. It provided provisions and education for thefreed blacks and some very poor southern whites.

Conservative Republicans - The group in the Republican Party that demanded that the South accept abolition of slavery, but but had no conditions for readmitting states.

Radical Republicans- The Republicans, led by Thaddeus Stevens (Pennsylvania) and Charles Sumner (Massachusetts), who believed that the Confederacy should be punished and that the Confederate wealth should be redistributed; they also urged the protection of African Americans.

Lincoln's 10% Plan - Whenever 10% of the white men in each state pledged loyalty to the Union and accepted the abolition of slavery, that state would be accepted into the Union. It also gave blacks who fought in the Union army the right to vote.

Wade-Davis Bill - The Radical Reublicans' response to Lincoln's 10% plan. The president would pick a governor for each Confederate state. After 51% of whites swore loyakty to the Union, the governor could summon a constitutional convention to elect delegates.

Restoration- Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction. It was mostly like the Wade-Davis Bill except any white southernor with at least $20,000 would have to go to Johnson for an individual pardon.

Black Codes - State legislaures set down in the south. They gave whites almost total control over blacks and officials were allowed to arrest blacks for the smallest things.

Three Reconstruction Bills - 3 bills vetoed by Johnson which were overrode by Congress. Tennessee was admitted to the Union because it ratified the 14th Amendment. The South was divided into 5 military districts with a military commander at each district. Registered voters would elect conventions to prepare new state constitutions which had to be approved by Congress. The new constitution had to ratify the 14th Amendment, then the state could be admitted to the Union.

Tenure of Office Act- Passed by Congress in 1867 to keep the job of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. It forbade the president to remove any cabinet member from office.

Command of the Army Act - Also passed by Congress in 1867, it forbade Johnson from givng military orders except through Grant. Also that Grant could not be removed without consent of the Senate.

Scalawags - A name concerned mainly with white Southernors. They were Democrats who switched to the Republican Party because they though being a Republican would suit them better economically.

Carpetbaggers - Whites from the North who traveled to the South with carpetbags, and hoped to make a lot of money because of the turmoil in the South.

Civil Rights Act of 1875 - A failed attwmpt by the federal government to integrate schools in the South.

Sharecropping - A job that most blacks had. They worked on a white man's plantation and for pay recieved part of the land. The blacks then payed the white owner part of their crop.

Crop-Lien System- Farmers relied on credit given by merchants who owned local stores. So they had to give the merchants a lien on their crops proportional to their loans.

Liberal Republicans - Party formed after Grant's first term. They were the people who were against Grant's decisions. In 1872 they even nominated their own presidential candidate Harace Greely. Even so, Grant won reelection.

Panic of 1873 - Began with the failure of Jay Cooke and Company, which invested to much in the postwar railroads. It was the worst depression so far and it lasted for 4 years.

Seward's Folly - Another name for Alaska. It got that name because William Seward authorized its purchase for $7.2 million and many people believed it to be a waste of money.

Ku Klux Klan - Formed in 1866 by Nathan Bedford Forrest, its members dressed in white sheets and terrorized black communities. They often battled against the federal government.

Ku Klux Klan Acts - prohibited staes from discriminating against voters and gave the federal government the power to supercede state courts.

Social Darwinism- A theory that argued that individuals failed because of their own weakness. This idea developed because of the Panic of 1873.

Compromise of 1877- Congress created a special electoral commission to resolve the dispute of the Hayes election. A Democratic filibuster threatened to derail the commission's report, so a compromise was necessary. Under the compromise, Republicans would withraw troops from the South and the Democrats would abandon the filibuster. Hayes was elected president.

Convict-Lease System- Southern states leased gangs of convicted criminals to private interests for cheap labor. They were treated very badly and recieved no pay.THis was done to expand the railroad industry.

Black Middle Class - Former slaves who managed to get property and established businesses. This class was inferior to the white middle class, but it was still an improvement.

Plessy vs. Ferguson- A Supreme Court case about a Louisiana law that required separate seats on the railroads. The Court decided that segegation was legal if accomadations were equal for whites and blacks.

Lynchings- White mobs seized blacks from jail and hanged in great public rituals. Some were planned well in advance and were well organized.

Document 1: Proclamation on the Wade-Davis Bill, July 8, 1864 copy of original document
Author-
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president and the hero of the Civil War. He is against the Wade-Davis Bill, but he will go along with it. Place and Time- The White House, Washington DC in 1864. This time increases the meaning of the document because Lincoln wrote it right after the Wade-Davis Bill was passed, so it was written by him firsthand. Prior Knowledge- The Wade-Davis Bill was passed with the knowkedge that the Union would win the war even though the war had not yet ended. It was passed in rsponse to Lincoln's 10% Plan becuase the Radical Republicans thought Lincoln was being too soft with the Confederacy.
Audience- This document was to be heard by Congress and by the United States citizens. This makes the source reliable because Lincoln would want to speak the truth to the public. Reason- This source was produced to respond to Congress responding to his plan. It was necessary because the public would be expecting Lincoln to say something about the Wade-Davis Bill. It is reliable because nothing could be gained out of Lincon lying, so he probably told the truth. The Main Idea- This document shows that even though the Wade-Davis Bill was counteracting his plan, he was still willing to go along with it. Significance- This source is important because it shows Lincoln's consent with the Wade-Davis Bill.

Document 2: Veto of the First Reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867 **copy of original document**
Author- Andrew Johnson, took office after Lincoln died, but was ineffective and was eventually impeached. He was against the Reconstruction bills because he believed them to be unconstitutional. Place and Time- The White House, Washington DC in 1864. This increases the meaning of the document because this was right after Congresss passed the First Reconstruction Act, so it is more likely to be truthful. Prior Knowledge- At this time Congress was controlled by the Radical Republicans, who wanted harsh punishments for the Confederacy. Johnson disagreed with the Radical Republicans, so he vetoed the bill. Congress overrode the bill, though, so it became a law anyway. Audience- This document was written for the House of Representatives. This makes the document mre reliable because Johnson would want to tell the House exactly what he thinks.
Reason- Johnson wrote this to tell Congress why he disliked the bill in the hope that they might not override it. The Main Idea- Johnson disliked the bill and believed it to be unconstitutional so he vetoed it.
Significance- This document is significant because it shows Johnson's dislike of Congress and the Radical Republicans. It also shows the problems Johnson caused Congress and why the House would have wanted to impeach him.

Document 3: Thaddeus Stevens Speech of December 18, 1865 **copy of original document**
Author- Thaddeus Stevens, the leader of the Radical Republicans and he attempted to exercise Congress' power to its fullest extent. Place and Time- The Capitol, Washington DC in 1865. This increases the meaning of the document because Stevens is trying to rally together the Radical Republicans in Congress and go against the president while they can. Prior Knowledge- Thaddeus Stevens is from Pennsylvania and was one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans. He was against Johnson and tried to get the Radical Republcans in Congress to get a lot of laws passed while they still had control of Congress. Audience- This document was written as a speech for Congress in which Stevens would display his views. This means that there could be some exaggeration because Stevens was desperate for support. Reason- Stevens wrote this speech in order to gain support from the rest of Congress to pass as many laws as possible in favor of the Radical Republicans, so this might mean there there is a little untruthfulness, but most of it is probably true, otherwise the other Radical Republicans would not agree with him. The Main Idea- The main idea of the document is that the Radical Republicans need to take action while they still have power in Congress and that if they do not, then nothing will ever get done. Significance- This document is important because it shows Thaddeus Stevens' determination to put Radical Republican policies into place despite Johnson's attempted intervention.


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