Bye Abe
Lincoln's assassination in April 1865 led to...
...his successor, Andrew Johnson.

Andrew Johnson
  • was born in 1808, and grew up in poverty.
  • was a self-taught tailor from Tennessee, which seceeded from the Confederacy after the Civil War.
  • was appointed leader of the Tennessee War Democrats, despite the fact that he was loyal to the Union.
  • was the 17th president of the United States of America.
  • was returned to the Senate in 1875. He died a few months later.
Through President Andrew Johnson
  • many former Confederate leaders were pardoned and re-integrated into office by the autumn of 1865.
  • just eight months after Johnson took office, all 11 of the ex-Confederate states qualified to be re-admitted into the Union because of his Restoration Plan.
The election of 1864: Johnson is nominated as Abraham Lincoln's running mate.
April 1865: Abraham Lincoln is assassinated.
May 1865: Johnson unleashes his Restoration Plan
  • which was much more moderate than the Wade-Davis Plan.
  • which was much different than what Congress had in mind.
  • which was similar to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan.
Under the Restoration Plan
  • the ex-Confederate states had to recognize the abolishment of slavery by ratifying the 13th Amendment.
  • the ex-Confederate states had to repudiate war debts.
  • the ex-Confederate states had to elect a state government.
  • the ex-Confederate states had to swear allegiance to the Union.
  • Johnson provided for the disfranchisement of high-ranking Confederate officials, as well as those with more than $20,000.
The main obstacles that Johnson faced during his term were from the Radical Republicans, who
  • were extremists. For example, they wanted African-Americans to have voting privileges.
  • were upset that Johnson's Restoration Plan did not extend suffrage to blacks.
  • were dismayed by the fact that Johnson pardoned former leaders of the Confederacy (such as Alexander Stephens, the former Confederate vice president).
  • did not like Johnson's non-response to the Black Codes, which were adopted by the southern state legislatures and designed to limit the rights of African-Americans.
  • overrode Johnson's veto, and passed their Congressional Plan of 1867.
    • The most damaging effect that this act had on President Johnson was that all his governments were disassembled. Furthermore, his ruling power was divided in South, into five military districts.
  • passed the 1867 Tenure of Office Act, as well as the Command of the Army Act.
    • The Tenure of Office Act forbade President Johnson from removing civil officials without Senate approval. The Radical Republicans wanted to protect their main support within the administration: Secretary of War Edwin Stanton.
    • The Command of the Army Act prohibited presidential issuing of military acts without Senate approval.
Johnson would lose more popularity when he vetoed two important bills in 1866:
  • one that would have extend the influences of the Freedmen's Bureau.
  • one known as the Civil Rights Bill, which would have nullified the Black Codes, as well as granted full citizenship and equal rights to African Americans.
Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act, which kicked off the April 1868 Impeachment case.
  • Johnson saw this action as a violation of his powers.
  • The Impeachment case failed by a single vote that would declare the two-thirds majority to remove Johnson.
  • He would later be exonerated, or cleared, from the Radical Republican's accusations; the court saw the Republican's actions as a step beyond their powers.
Other groups that worked against President Johnson included
  • the Southern scalawags, who hoped for industrialization, as well as seats in the government.
  • the Northern carpetbaggers, who looked to help African Americans adapt to their new environment following the Civil War.
  • the newly-freed African Americans, who hoped for education, economic opportunity, political rights, and an equal community.
  • northern Republicans in Congress, who in 1866, refused to seat pardoned former leaders of the Confederacy.
To persuade voters in the election of 1866, Johnson held a public speaking tour known as the "Swing Around the Circle."
  • Johnson's speeches argued that equality for blacks would lead to an "Africanized" society.
  • In this vicious election, the Republicans accused Johnson as a drunkard and a traitor. They used a strategy known as "waving the bloody shirt" to gather northern support.
  • Unfortuantely, the (moderate and Radical) Republicans would gain control of Congress with more than a two-thirds majority in both the House and Senate. They could now overpower Johnson's plans.
At the start of the presidential election of 1868, the Democrats immediately put up Horaito Seymour, therefore ending Johnson's term.