Chapter 18 key terms:


Urbanization: The movement of people from rural areas to more urban areas. Urban areas usually had around 2,500 people. Cities attracted people because f their entertainments, conveniences, and cultural experiences.
Immigrant Ghettos
Immigrant Ghettos

Immigrant Ghettos:
National groups such as Chinese, Italian, Polish, Jewish, French-Canadian, Mexican, Slavic, etc. formed close-knit ethnic communities within the cities in order to ease their transition. Also, it helped bring some of their old life into the new world.

Assimilation: The desire of people from many ethnic groups to become true "Americans." Some people wanted to Americanize so badly, that they tried to let go of all the traditions and values of their old cultures. Also, native Americans encouraged it by teaching children English in schools, and hiring only people who spoke English for many jobs.

Old Immigrant:
Immigrants from mainly Northern and Western Europe. They were already accustomed to living in America, and already knew how to speak English. They tried to keep their eyes on the "new immigrants" because they didn't want to lose their jobs.

New Immigrant:
Immigrants who came from mainly Southern and Eastern Europe (Hungary, Poland, Russia, Italy...). Many did not have any family living in the United States, and most were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. They were also at a bigger disadvantage because they did not speak English.

Immigration Restriction League:
Created by five Harvard alumni and founded in Boston. It wanted to separate the "desirable from the undesirable" through literacy tests and other standards. They were nativists who strongly believed that all immigrants should be screened in order to determine which ones should be allowed to enter the country.

Tenements
Tenements
Suburbs:
An area right outside of the main cities that were sometimes linked to the downtown trains or streetcars or roads. Both the wealthy and the middle class lived there. They provided an opportunity for everyone to own land, and many people took advantage of buying the land because it was less expensive.

Tenements:
Slum dwellings that were "miserable abodes" with many windowless rooms, and if they were lucky some had a little plumbing and central heating. They were all very crowded with the poor and most had three to four people crammed into one small room.

Settlement Houses:
Sought to help immigrants and their families adapt to the customs and language of America. They were middle class people sharing their values with and teaching immigrants how to live a normal middle class life. Young reformers provided social services to people in the neighborhoods.

Jane Addams:
Opened one of the first settlement houses in 1889: the Hull House in Chicago. She inspired many other people to open more settlement houses across the country.

Louis Sullivan:
Attempted to emphasize the height of skyscrapers by introducing large windows, sheer lines, and limited ornamentation. He was the greatest figure in the early development of the skyscraper.

Frank Lloyd Wright:
A student of Louis Sullivan who expanded the influence of Sullivan's innovations by applying them to lower buildings as well as taller buildings.

Frederick Law Olmstead:
A landscape designer who teamed up with Calvert Vaux to design New York's Central Park. They made it look as little like the city as possible. They were recruited to design other parks and public spaces in cities such as Washington D.C., Brooklyn, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston.

Mass Transit:
People grew tired of horsecars, so they developed new and more efficient ways of traveling, such as steam-powered trains, cable cars, electric trolley lines, subways, and also building bridges and new roads.
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony

Elizabeth Cady Stanton:
A strong woman committed to feminist causes. Founded the National Woman's Loyal League in 1863 with Susan B. Anthony. She worked for the abolition of slavery and suffrage of woman's rights.

Susan B. Anthony:
Founded the National Woman's Loyal League in 1863 with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. She drew the parallels between the plight of women and the plight of slaves, and fought for the suffrage of both women and slaves.

Skyscraper:
Buildings such as the Empire State Building in New York that became more and more popular. They were incredibly tall, and needed elevators in order to ascend faster. Louis Sullivan introduced large windows and other interesting elements to the buildings to give them more appeal.

Public Health Service:
Created in 1912 by the federal government, and it was charged with preventing diseases such as tuberculosis, anemia, and carbon dioxide poisoning. Although it had a limited impact, it wanted to create common health standards for all factories. It brought to attention the environmental forces that endangered health and established the protction of public health as a responsibility of the federal government.

Urban Machines:
One of America's most distinctive political institutions. It came about because of the growth of cities and the power vacuum it created. They were vehicles for making money, but were very corrupted.

Boss Tweed:
William M.Tweed, boss of New York's Tammany Hall in the 1860's-1870's. He was the most famously corrupt city boss, and his excesses got him into jail in 1872.

Coney  Island
Coney Island
Leisure:
Before, leisure used to be frowned upon, for one to just amuse oneself with nonproductive pursuits. Now, leisure was a normal part of everyone's lives: time for entertainment such as recreations and activities.

Coney Island:
An amusement park filled with fun rides and shows and excited crowds of people. A great attraction for many people who had leisure time.

Spectator Sports:
Sports such as Baseball, Boxing, Football, and Basketball that were played and attended by men. It took a while for them to gain respect from the middle class, but they were still a good pastime.

Major League Baseball:
Started with around 200 amateur or semiprofessional teams and clubs that agreed on standard rules and joined a national association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first team, formed in 1869. Other teams emerged, and they built the National League. The American Association appeared, but then the American League replaced it. In 1903 the first World Series was played: the American League Boston Red Sox beat the National League Pittsburgh Pirates.
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin


Vaudeville:
The most popular form of urban entertainment, Vaudeville was a form of theater adapted from French models. A variety of acts are performed by jugglers, musicians, comedians, magicians, and others. It was one of the few entertainment media open to black performers.

Charles Darwin:
An English naturalist who argued that humans evolved from other forms and managed to stay alive because of natural selection. Basically, he stated that the world process and life was determined by survival of the fittest, and refused to believe that there was any God or other divine source of power.

W.E.B. DuBois:
The first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard. He studied crime in urban neighborhoods by using statistical methods of sociology. He was an avid activist who advocated full rights for blacks, integrated schools, and higher education for the "talented tenth" of African American youth.

Talented Tenth:
An article written by W.E.B. DuBois saying that one in every ten African Americans would become great leaders.



2 Documents and APARTS:



REFORM OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT:

Author: Richard T. Ely. He is a reform-minded economist who is opposed to traditional laissez-faire economics.

Place and Time:
United States of America, 1889. The time affects the document, because of the specific ways that the government was acting during that time period.

Prior Knowledge: It would help for one to know how the government was running things, to know what it is that the president has decided lately.

Audience: This article was most likely written for people looking to study a certain viewpoint of our government and for students to be more informed abut what was really happening.

Reason:
This document was written to inform people about the government and how its "resources are inadequate." It was written during this time because this was when Ely thought the government was at its poorest.

The Main Idea: Basically, Ely is saying that our government is not doing a very good job running the country. Although, we still need to rely on it because without and higher power, man would be lost.

Significance: The document shows that even though these years were more focused on the economic and social activities, we still need to look at the political aspect and how it plays a part. This document shows us that the government was not very active during the 1880's, and that it should have done more to help our economy and society.



TENEMENTS AND URBAN PROBLEMS:

Tenements of New York
Tenements of New York

Author: Jacob A. Riis. He was a Danish immigrant who wanted to show the world how bad living conditions were for the poor.

Place and Time: 1890, New York. During this time, many people live in tenements under horrible conditions.

Prior Knowledge:
It would be useful to know that tenements are very small rooms where the poor would fit about three or four (and sometimes even more) people. They were miserable dumps that had only a small amount of plumbing and heat.

Audience: The wealthy and middle classes. Riis wanted to show them the horrible conditions, and thought that maybe they would try to improve them.

Reason:
Riis just wanted to show how much the poor were suffering. He intends to educate the public by showing them how ignorant they are to the fact that many people are dying under the horrible living conditions. At that time, the poor people were facing more struggles, considering that many of them were immigrants who had yet to make a stable living.

The Main Idea: Tenements are horrible living places, and they are generally very bad for your health. There are far too many people whose lives depend on being able to stay in the filthy rooms.

Significance:
This document covers an important topic of the 1880's-1890's. It gives us more details about the living conditions in tenements, and how many people have to suffer in them. It shows us that they are really unsafe and that many people die just from living there.