• New Left- A movement led by students (SDS-Students for a Democratic Society) who protested university rules. Some of these rules were agaisnt drinking and dorm visitation. These students also wanted a greater voice in the government of the university. This movement caused antiwar protests, fueled by the Vietnam War. Many Americans did not approve of this movement because of extremist acts and foul language.
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  • Counterculture- This new culture was expressed by the youth when they revolted through their dress, music, drug use, and communal living. These kids ("hippies" and "flower children") would dress in beads, jeans, have long hair, and beards. They listened to rock n' roll, and bands like The Beatles, Rolling Stones, and Bob Dylan. They started to experiment with hullcinagin drugs like LSD.
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  • Sexual Revolution- This was a concept that started during the counter culture and continued on long after the 1960's. This revolution weakened restrictions on premarital sex, contraception, abortion, and homosexuality. This would lead to awareness to problems like AIDS and an increase in crimes of rape and sexual abuse in the 1980's.
  • Baker v.Carr- Supreme court case which ruled that state legistlatures had to apportion electoral districts so that every citizen's vote would have equal weight. This court case helped to strengthen the voting powers of African Americans and Hispanics.
  • Bakke v. Board of Regents of California- Supreme court case that established new restrictive guidelines for programs in the future. It upheld the principle afformative action.
  • American Indian Movement- (AIM) Was supported by Indians who lived in urban areas and would eventually spread to reservations.
    • Civil Rights Act- (1968) Guarenteed reservation Indians protection under the Bill of Rights and recognized tribal law.
  • Womens Movement- A renewal of women's movement began with the the civil rights movement, and the sexual revolution. They achieved fundamental changes in employment and hiring practices.
    • Equal Rights Amendment- (1972) Congress passed this amendment which created equality for all women. It was never ratified because of the rise of conservatism in the 1970's because of radical feminists.
    • Betty Friedan- Wrote The Feminine Mystique . This book encouraged middle class women to seek fulfillment in their own personal careers instead of being confined to the house. She helped formed the NOW (National Organization for Women) which pushed to secure equal treatment of women.
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  • Richard Nixon's Policies
    • Vietnamization- The gradual processes of withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam. It also gave aid to South Vietnam with money, weapons, and training they needed to handle the war.
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    • Nixon Doctrine-The policy where the United States would participate in the defense and development of allies but would leave the responsibility for the future of the allies to the actual nation. It declined American interest in third world development.
    • New Federalism- Congress approved giving local governments $30 billion in grants over 5 years to address local needs as they saw fit. This returned the responsibility back to the states.
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    • Arab Oil Embargo- There was an oil embargo by the Arab governments on all the allies of Isreal, including the United States. It showed how dependent the United Sates had become on foriegn oil. The U.S. could no longer rely on access to raw materials it had in the past. Also, the United States could not ignore the interests of the Arab nations in its efforts on behalf of Israel.
    • My Lai- (1968) This was a massacre in which U.S. troops killed the women and children in the town of My Lai in Vietnam. This act provided more fuel to the antiwar sentiment.
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    • Detente- a deliberate reduction of Cold War tensions.
      • China- Nixon initiated diplomatic foriegn exchanges that led to the U.S. recognition of the Communist government in 1979.
      • U.S.S.R.- Nixon used the relationship with China to make a treaty to limit the antiballistic missiles. The agreement did not end the arms race it was a step in the right direction.
    • Stagflation- During the 1970's America experienced a period of stagnation and inflation. This is when there is an economic slowdown and high inflation.
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    • Silent Majority- Republicans and democrats that appealed to representatives who resented antiwar protests, black militants, school busing for racial balance, and excesses of the youth culture. They were normally southern whites, catholic, blue-collar workers, and suburbanites. Nixon appealed to these people to win the 1972 election.
    • War Powers Act- This act limited the power of the President by Congress. This law required any President to report to Congress in the first 48 hours after taking any military action. Congress also had to apporve any military action that lasted more then 60 days. This act was passed because of Nixon's 3,500 unauthorized bombing on Cambodia, a nuetral country.
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    • Watergate- In 1972 Nixon's reelection committee was caught breaking into the offices of the democratic national headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington D.C. This was only part of the scandals that the reelection committee took place in. There was also an illegal cover-up to avoid scandal. This caused Nixon to resign in 1974, after the talk of Congress impeaching him.

Title: The Revival of the Women's Movement
Author: Gloria Steinem. There is a bias because she is a white, middle/upper class female. She shows favortism towards the Feminist Movement.
Place&Time: In a hearing she gave promoting the "Equal Rights" Amendment in 1970. This showed the major importance of women's rights to women were. The were strong adovactes for change. Every though the amendment was never added to the Consistution, women still fought for it to be pushed through Congress.
Audience: It was mainly intended for Congress. However, many American Women would be interested in her speech.
Prior Knowledge: The revivial of the Women's Movement started in the 60's and spread into the 70's. They were pushing for equal rights in both the house and in employment. They were only successful in achieving changes in employment and hiring practices. The movement died in the 70's with a push back towards conservatism.
Reason: She was trying to convince the Senate to pass the Equal Rights Amendment. She did this by addressing concerns about mothers becoming full-time workers. She justified her reasons by putting a greater emphasis on the father-child bond.
The Main Idea: Men will benefit from mothers working as much as the women would.
Significance: It shows how significant the Women's Movement was in the 1960's/70's.
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    • (Pictured:Gloria Steinem)
Title: Nixon's Grand Strategy In The Cold War
Author: Richard Nixon. There is a huge bias because he is examining his own policies. He shows favoritism towards his own policies.
Place&Time: It was written after his presidency in 1978. The piece was recorded in the book, Memoirs of Richard Nixon.
Audience: The intended audience was the American public. It was probably more focused at his critics to show the real policies he stood for.
Prior Knowledge: Nixon resigned before he could be impeached in 1972 due to the Watergate Scandal. His policies included Vietnamization, Stagflation, and the Nixon Doctrine. His big accomplishment was his push for a new connection to be formed between the United States and China.
Reason: It showed his anti-communist stance. It also protrayed the risks he made such as visiting China to try to achieve a more stable world.
The Main Idea: "I have always believed that we can and must communicate, and when possible, negotiate with Communist nations..."
Significance: It showed that although Nixon had betrayed his country through the Water Gate Scandal, he was still trying to make the world a better place.
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Title: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Author: The United States Congress. No bias.
Time&Place: It was signed on August 7th, 1964.
Audience: The American public, the President, and the American military.
Prior Knowledge: The Tonkin Resolution was instated until the War Powers Act after Nixon and the Watergate Scandal. It was intended to limit the power of the president.
Reason: It was signed in order to give the military a reason to fight in Vietnam.
The Main Idea: "The United is ...prepared...to asist any member...requesting assistance in defense of its freedom...."
Significance: It gave the United States permission to stay and fight the war in Vietnam.
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