Chapter 6 Vocabulary and DocumentsVOCABULARY
  1. Articles of Confederation: Ratified in 1777, it was the first national constitution. It contained many limitations on the government, such as not giving the national government the power to tax or to regulate trade. It also required the unanimous consent of all the states. It was more concerned with prohibiting the government from gaining too much power.
  2. Shay's Rebellion: In 1787, an army of 1,500 farmers from western Massachusetts marched on Springfield to protest a number of unfair policies (economic and political). It showed the lingering resentment felt by farmers towards the elite.
    Men fighting during the Shay's Rebellion
  3. Northwest Ordinance of 1787: One of the greatest achievements of the government under the Articles, because it contained a bill of rights guaranteeing a trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment. It abolished slavery in the Northwest territories, and set specific regulations regarding the conditions for statehood.
  4. Alexander Hamilton: He was concerned that there was no uniform commercial policy, he became the first Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, and was a writer of the Federalist Papers.
  5. Annapolis Convention: a meeting at Annapolis of twelve delegates from five states that called for a constitutional convention. It led to the meeting in Philadelphia, the Constitutional Convention.
  6. Constitutional Convention: for four months, fifty-five delegates met to frame the Constitution and start from scratch.
  7. Virginia Plan: Written by James Madison, it proposed three things: the legislature would be bicameral (having two houses) and the representation was to be proportional (based on population), the chief executive was to be chosen by the legislature, and the judiciary should be chosen by the legislature.
  8. New Jersey Plan: written by William Patterson, it proposed the idea of a unicameral (one house) legislature in which all states would have an equal number of votes.
  9. The Great Compromise: AKA The Connecticut Compromise, It shared ideas from both the VA and NJ Plans to have a bicameral legislature. This legislature would have lower house (the House of Reps) elected by the people and the upper house (the Senate) elected by the state legislatures.
  10. Three fifths Compromise: A method for counting slaves in the Southern states. Each slave counted for three fifths of a person.
  11. us_constitution.jpg
    The US Constitution
    The supreme law of the land, it established the three branches of government, the executive, legislative and judicial, with checks and balances.
  12. Antifederalists: Appalled by the absence of a bill of rights, they rejected the Constitution. They believed that a stronger central government would destroy the government. It's leaders included George Mason and Patrick Henry.
  13. Federalists: They were a well-organized group who believed in a stronger central government, to maintain peace and order. Their leaders included George Washington, Ben Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.
    James Madison
  14. Federalist Papers: A key component of the Federalist campaign for the Constitution, they were a series of persuasive essays, written for a New York newspaper, by Johan Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison
  15. Strict Constructionists: Argued that the Constitution allowed Congress only those powers specifically granted to it or those necessary to the execution of its enumerated powers, Ex: James Madison, Jefferson
  16. Loose Constructionist: Argued that the government could do anything in the execution of enumerated powers, that were not forbidden it by the Constitution, Ex: Alexander Hamilton
  17. French Revolution: took place during the Washington administration. It was controversial, as Jefferson wanted to support it, but Hamilton had aristocratic leanings and disliked the revolutionaries who overthrew the king.
  18. Citizen Edmond Genet: visited America to seek its assistance in the war.
  19. Proclamation of Neutrality: Washington did not believe the nation was strong enough to fight in a European War so he issued this, and Jefferson resigned as a result.
  20. Whiskey Rebellion: Began in western Pennsylvania when farmers resisted an excise tax on whiskey, imposed by Hamilton's program. Washington dispatched a militia to stop the rebels, it showed the strength and fairness of the new federal government.
  21. Jay Treaty: A treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier, it maintained Washington's policy of neutrality.
  22. Pinckney Treaty: Spain agreed to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade. The right of deposit was granted to Americans so that they could transfer cargoes in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish government. Spain also accepted the US claim that Florida's boundary should be at the 31st parallel.
  23. XYZ Affair: Three diplomats, sent by President Adams, tried to negotiate with France. The officials however demanded a huge bribe before they would even negotiate. Adams's high point was that he
    Thomas Jefferson
    kept the US out of a war with France.
  24. Alien and Sedition Acts: It authorized the President to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any aliens in a time of war and it made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the President or Congress and imposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the law.
  25. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Argued that states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws, and to exercise nullification, declaring the Alien and Sedition Acts void.
  26. Revolution of 1800: America's first transfer of power, from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans, and amazingly, no violence occurred, it was a "bloodless revolution".


A: Alexander Hamilton wrote this. He was the first Secretary of the Treasury, as well as a Founding Father. He also did participate in the Revolutionary War, he was adamant about revising the Constitution, and also was one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Because he was a Federalist, he supported a strong central government, and an economy based on commerce, as well as having a loose interpretation of the Constitution, giving aid to business, a national bank, tariffs, and a having a large peacetime army and navy.
P: Since this document was written in 1791, several things happened that year. Washington D.C. had just been agreed to be the capital of the country, and the ratification of the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments in the Constitution, had been completed. The period, there was a need for a stronger national government, as the Articles of Confederation had not provided one. There were still debates on states' rights vs. federal government rights.
P: The source was a debate from the Federalist point of view. Federalists believed in loose constructionism, whom believe that whatever the Constitution did not say was illegal, was allowed. They were much more activist, and that the Constitution should fit with changing opinions.
A: The audience would be those members of Congress who's vote Hamilton depended on for the passage of the bill, as well as President Washington, who had to sign the bill. In order to argue for the bill, Hamilton would have to defend the opposing viewpoint, loose constructionism, in order to elaborate and explain why they needed a national bank.
R: In order to lessen the increasing national debt, due to the Revolutionary War, Hamilton proposed several ideas to reduce it, including creating a national bank. Antifederalist, Thomas Jefferson argued that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to create a bank. This document was created to argue that the Constitution authorized Congress to do whatever was necessary to carry out its enumerated power.
T: The creation of a bank was an implied power of the government, and the government could do anything in the execution of those enumerated powers that was not explicitly forbidden it by the Constitution.
S: This was important because it shows how the nation was still struggling to set up a strong national government. Because of the previous government under the Articles of Confederation, there was a weak government, for fear of it becoming a tyranny. The cost was that the economy was in ruin. Now since this bill could give the federal government more power, there was a lot of controversy whether or not to give the government more power.


A: Author is Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States. He was the author of the Declaration of Independence, and a Founding Father. During his presidency, he obtained the Louisiana Purchase and sent Lewis and Clark to explore the huge amount of territory. He was an Antifederalist, and a firm believer of the strict interpretation of the Constitution.
P: This took place in 1798, right after the Quasi War, an undeclared war between France and the US. This was also written after the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which limited naturalization of foreigners and allowed the government to prosecute those who engaged in sedition against the government. This document was written to refute the claims of both of these acts.
P: The Kentucky and the Virginia Resolutions both included ideas from John Locke, that the federal government had been formed by a contract among states and had limited powers. Whenever it used any undelegated powers, it was considered void.
A: The audience would be Congressmen who would be part of the Kentucky legislature, as they would have to vote to pass the bill. Considering resolution would have to persuade such an influential group of men, the resolution would have to be reliable.
R: This document was created in order to give states the power to reject any federal law they thought was unconstitutional. The Antifederalists wanted to limit the power of the federal government, in order to prevent tyrants from rising to power. This would make the resolution not as reliable because the majority wanted a stronger federal government.
T: THe federal government had been formed by a contract between the states and had powers defined by the Constitution. If it were to overstep its power, the government would be declared unauthoritative, and the states had the right to nullify the appropriate laws.
S: This source is important due to the fact that it wanted to preserve principles of the Constitution; freedom and self-government. This really started the conflict over who had sovereignty over the other, the state or federal government. This event did divide the country politically, as it did not gain wide support by the democratic-republicans.


A: Benjamin Banneker was a free African American man who contributed a lot to 18th century science. He helped plan Washington D.C. and he wrote on many subjects such as politics and individual rights. His point of view towards slavery is that it should end as it was injustice to keep people enslaved.
P: This document was written in 1792, when slavery was still practiced, but were mostly owned by the wealthy elite.There weren't many educated African Americans, so the fact that he is well educated substantiates his argument further.
P: Although Jefferson did believe that slavery contradicted everyone's rights to personal liberties, and even tried to pass legislation that would prevent slave importation, yet Jefferson did own slaves. Slavery was not rampant; only the wealthy could afford slaves, it wasn't until the invention of the cotton gin did slavery really become widespread.
A: This was meant primarily for Thomas Jefferson, though in retrospect, it could be applied to any powerful person. He chose to write to Jefferson because he was the author of the Declaration of Independence, he should understand why slavery was criminal. It was written from one intellectual to another, so it would be very reliable.
R: In order to get justice for the enslaved, Banneker pleaded with Jefferson to stop slavery, so as to convince him to help prevent it.
T: Banneker wrote this to convince Jefferson to stop slavery, and by quoting passages from the Declaration of Independence that Jefferson even wrote, Banneker accuses Jefferson of being a hypocrite and a criminal for owning slaves.
S: This was important as it shows a progressive push to end slavery even though it has been accepted as a part of society. This even made Jefferson interested in the advancement of the equality African Americans and left a big impression on him.

Princeton Review: AP US History Exam 2010 Edition
Click on pictures for their sources