The Population
During the period from 1820 to 1860, reporting as a profession expanded greatly, and by the end of the period reporters were producing twice as many stories as they had been at the beginning of the period. During this period there was also a growth in literacy throughout the states, which led to increased readership.

Technological Advances
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A caricature of a magnetic telegraph. Click to learn more it.

The beginning of enhanced communication was the magnetic telegraph.
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The magnetic telegraph aided the growth of railroads as it ran along the tracks and helped regulate the scheduling and routing of trains.
· The magnetic telegraph affected other areas as well; it connected distant cities, allowing them to communicate instantly for the first time.
· The magnetic telegraph, while bringing the country together, also pushed it apart. The magnetic telegraph lines were more plentiful in the North and Northwest, further alienating the South. {Sectionalism!}

The History of the Magnetic Telegraph

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· Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph after years of failure in 1844, his first message: James K. Polk had been nominated for the presidency.
^^ More on Morse: Morse invented the telegraph, the first means of instant communication, he devised Morse Code, he was a renowned artist, sculptor, portrait painter and early photographer. Was the son of Jedidiah Morse, a minister and geologist.
· The telegraph flourished because it was relatively cheap to construct.
· By 1860 more than 50,000 miles of telegraph wires connected most of the country. By 1861 the Pacific telegraph was 3,595 connecting New York and San Francisco. These all joined to form the Western Union Telegraph Company.
^^More on the Western Union Telegraph Company: "Western Union Telegraph Company enterprise was created (1851) to provide telegraphic communications services in the United States. Originally known as the New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company, Western Union (as it was renamed in 1856 after a series of acquisitions) built the nation's first transcontinental telegraph line in 1861. By 1943, after acquiring Postal Telegraph and some 500 other competitors, Western Union was easily the largest company in its field."

The Growth of Printing and Newspapers
In 1846, Richard Hoe invented a steam cylinder rotary press, which made the production of newspapers quickly and for a low cost.
More on the Rotary Press can be found here. "The first great step toward facilitating the rapid and cheap production of the modern newspaper was made by Robert Hoe of New York about 1840 when the first of the type-revolving presses were built. In the Hoe press, the type cylinder revolved on a horiztontal axis. This arrangement for feeding the sheets was simple and the capacity of the press varied according to the number of impression cylinders arranged around the type cylinder, these presses being successfully made with four, six, eight, or ten impression cylinders respectively."


In 1846, the Associated Press, an organization connecting and encouraging cooperation between newspapers to allow transfer of news between cities, was founded. This allowed for the newspapers to easily exchange stories so news could now travel more quickly in papers.
^^For more information about the the Associated Press, read this article.

· By the united efforts of the rotary press and the magnetic telegraph, news was being collected and distributed more quickly than ever before.


Newspapers and Sectionalism
An issue of Henry J. Raymond's Times.
An issue of Henry J. Raymond's Times.

-The North
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Major Metropolitan newspapers began appearing in the Northeast’s larger cities, such as New York.
· The North had more newspapers and magazines during this time, increasing the South’s sense of subjugation.
· In New York there were three major newspapers, Horace Greeley’s Tribune, James Gordon Bennett’s Herald, and Henry J. Raymond’s Times.
· The Tribune, Herald, and Times each reported on national and international news and had substantial circulation outside of the city.




--The South

· The Southern papers largely had smaller budgets than those of the North and reported usually only local news that only affected the immediate community
· Washington Barrow and the Nashville Banner, Amos Kendall and The Argus of Western America, G. W. Kendall and the New Orleans Picayune, John M. Francis and the Troy Times, and Charles Hammond and the Cincinnati Gazette were some of the newspapers and their editors from the south.
· During the 1850 John M. Daniel became the editor of the Richmond Examiner which after a short period of time became the leading newspaper in the south.
· The combined circulation of the Tribune and the Herald exceeded that of all the daily newspapers published in the South put together.
· During the 1820s the question of abolition came up and was discussed.
· Newspapers that were related to abolition were excluded from the mail, their circulation was prohibited and their editors were sometimes assaulted.

-- Sectionalism
· Although journalism would eventually help unify the country, during the 1840’s and 1850’s, the press feed sectional discord.
· The news revolution contributed to a growing awareness between regions and each region began examining and comparing how other sections lived. The differences they saw would ultimately seem irreconcilable.