New Research and Development / Production Methods


Inventions led to greater productivity in the workplace and a larger variety of mass produced products in the average home. Most research and development in this time related to either technology or transportation.

Research

A growing number of business leaders found the need to have sponsors because sponsors allowed them to keep up with the rapid changes in industry. General electric was one of the first corporate laboratories in the 1900s, but they were followed closely by many others. This new research method led to a decline in government support for research, decentralization of funding sources, and ensured that research would go in multiple directions. Also, with this new way of research, a separation between engineers and scientists formed. Engineers worked to provide technology for the commercial laboratories, while scientists scorned the idea of them. However, some scientists did join with commercial laboratories and the engineers within. Also with these new research ideas came a transformation to higher education. Universities multiplied all through the entire United States along with lower level schools. The connection between universities and college expanded greatly in this time period, enough so that a partnership began to form between education and commercialization.

Production

"Scientific management," often called "Taylorism" after Frederick Winslow Taylor, became popular. These ideas were extremely controversial. He advised employers so subdivide tasks, thus leading to the employers greater control of a work place. Mass production, or the assembly line alos became very popular in this time period.

Inventions
Two miners standing in front of a railroad engine.
Two miners standing in front of a railroad engine.

The telegraph, invented by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1844, was the first radical change in the speed of communications. By the Civil War, railroads and telegraphs were standard parts of modern living. In 1866, Cyrus W. Field improved the transatlantic cable and made it possible to send messages across the sea. Field's cables linked all continents of the world in instantaneous, global communication. These cables were soon to be improved again by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 when he invented what would be known as the telephone.
Other important inventions included:
An early telephone.
An early telephone.

  • The Typewriter in 1867 by Christopher Latham Sholes
  • The Cash Register in 1879 by James Ritty
  • The Calculating Machine in 1887 by Theodore Simpson
  • The Adding Machine in 1888 by William Seward Burrough
  • The Kodak Camera in 1888 by George Eastman
  • The Fountain Pen in 1884 by Lewis E. Waterman
  • The Safety Razor and Blade in 1895 by King Gillette


Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison

Edison began as a telegraph operator. By 1869, he had already patented his first invention, a machine for recording votes. The success he recieved in 1869 allowed him to establish a laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Edison patented thousands of inventions from Menlo Park, including the photograph, the incandescent lamp, an electric light bulb, the dynamo for generating electric power, the mimeograph machine, and the motion picture camera.




George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse

Another inventor who patented more than 400 inventions. He was responsible for developing the air break for railroads in 1869 and a transformer for producing high-voltage alternating current in 1885. The tranformer made the lighting of cities and the operation of electric streetcars, subways, and electrically powered machinery and appliances available.








Bibliography

AMSCO text book
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adding_machine

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_register

http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/typrwriter.htm

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