The New South

  • The north started to care less for the south's reconstruction because they had their own problems.
  • With the adoption of the 15th amendment it was thought that by having the right to vote blacks could take care of themselves. The Panic of 1873 brought economic crisis to the north which also made them focus less on the south and more on them. Social Darwinism also rose. It was a philosophy in which its said that individuals failed because of their own weaknesses.
  • By the time Grant left office Democrats had taken back the governments of seven of the eleven former Confederate states.
  • Redemption was when each state managed to return political power to traditional white, conservative elites.


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  • Henry Grady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution spoke for a new south.
  • Talk for a more north-like economy and industry.
  • Joel Chandler Harris wrote folk tales such as Uncle Remus .
  • New or better forms of entertainment were available such as the Minstrel Show; white leaders were still set in the past.
  • Remarkable growth in the textile industry since they had cheap labor, low taxes and the abundance of water power.
  • James B. Duke of North Carolina, created the American Tobacco Company.
  • By 1890 the southern iron and steel industry represented a fifth of the nation's total capacity.
  • Between 1880 and 1890 trackage in the south more than doubled. In 1886 the south changed their gauge of the trackage to match the north's standards.
  • The south developed a colonial economy. Most of the factory workers were women. Wages were very low, sometimes half of what the northerners earned. Blacks were again only allowed to work in the most menial and lowest paid positions.
  • Convict- lease system- southern states leased gangs of convicted criminals to private interests as a cheap labor supply.
  • New trends: the imposition of systems of tenantry and debt peonage on much of the region; the reliance on a few cash crops rather than on a diversified agricultural system; and increasing absentee ownership of valuable farmlands.
  • Maggie Lena was a black women who became the first female bank president in the United States when she founded the St Luke Penny Savings Bank in Richmond in 1903.
  • Blacks became doctors, lawyers, nurses, or teaching their own race.
  • Booker T. Washington major spokesman for the whole black race and specifically education in the south. He was the founder of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. The Atlanta Compromise was a famous speech by Washington in which he urged blacks to better themselves.

Redeemers

  • Were also known as Bourbons.
  • White democrats who restored the south, also called it "home rule."
  • consisted of merchants, industrialists, railroad developers, and financiers.
  • The governments were all Democratic, they reduce taxes and spending, drastically diminished state services, schools systems were reduced or eliminated.

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  • the Readjuster movement- demanded that the state revise its debt payment procedures so as to make more money available for state services but by the mid 1880s the southerners overcame this movement.
  • The compromise of 1877 had failed to settle a permanent Republican Party in the south.


Jim Crow Laws
  • Support for racial equality vanished after 1877, congress lost interest and federal troops withdrew.
  • in the civil rights cases of 1883, the Court ruled that the 14 and 15th amendment prohibited state governments from discriminating against people because of race but did not restrict private organizations from doing so.
  • They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for blacks.
  • Some examples are segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms and restaurants for whites and blacks.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875 introduced by Charles Sumner and Benjamin Butler tried to break the Jim Crow Laws.
  • Laws were about disenfranchising and segregating, but they were also made so that whites would retain control of social relations between the races.
  • In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson the court held that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of equal rights if the accommodations were equal.
  • Southern leaders tried to restrict franchise by creating poll taxes or some form of property qualification, literacy test to show that you could read and write and interpret the Constitution.
  • Grandfather laws were also passed that stated that those who did not meet voting requirements, could vote if their ancestors voted. This restricted blacks because their ancestors were all slaves or never voted.