Causes of the Market Revolution
The population in the United States rapidly increased between 1820 and 1840. By 1840, the population in America reached 17 million. One of the causes for this rapid increase was public health improvements. Epidemics and the mortality rate declined. Immigration also helped to increase the population. Increased economic opportunities in America stimulated the immigration boom and many sought to work in America because economic conditions were worse in European countries. City growth exploded as more people began to move from farms and small towns to the big cities. All of these population factors were causes of the Market Revolution.

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Events Leading to the Market Revolution
-1793 Cotton Gin- The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney to increase cotton production. The machine helped separate the cotton seeds from the cotton itself, which allowed more cotton to be produced in a faster and easier manner. This helped the South's economy and allowed plantations to expand.




-1797 I
nterchangeable parts- Whitney also invented interchangeable parts. He made designs for guns that had separate pieces, but could be put together. Since all the pieces were being manufactured to be the exact same, it made it easier to assemble them. Before, guns were made by hand by a gunsmith. Now, guns could be produced faster and easier. This also led to interchangeable parts for any manufactured product, increasing production throughout the nation.

external image hudsonFulton2k.jpg-1825 Erie Canal is completed- the Erie Canal links the Hudson River and Lake Erie. It is 363 miles long and it improved transportation, allowing more goods to be distributed faster. This greatly helped the manufacturing revolution by making more products readily available to consumers so that goods and raw materials could be transferred across the country more easily.

-First U.S. railroad appears- It was called the "Old Main Line", or the "Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O)", which began service in 1828, stretching from Baltimore to Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. It later was expanded to reach Ohio, St. Louis, New York, and Philadelphia. The trains were, at first, pulled by horses, but later the B&O Railroad introduced the first steam powered locomotives in the United States, making it the most efficient way to transport goods and information.

-1832 Samuel F. B. Morse invents the telegraph- His invention transmitted signals through metal wires, which ended up moving a marker, making a series of dots and lines on a piece of paper. These symbols were called Morse Code. Each symbol represented a different letter. Congress funded a telegraph wire to go from Baltimore to Washington. This was the first machine ever able to transmit messages electronically. It helped to transform communication in the United States.
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-1830s/1840s- The Lowell System- The Lowell Mill was a textile mill that was comprised of only female workers. They were housed at the Mill, and given food and clothing. The workers were unmarried women who were paid low wages, but they were fine for the conditions of the time period. This system had a lot better working conditions for women than other mills, mines, and factories. This system did not last for long: new immigrants were willing to work for less money, wages decreased, and living standards decreased significantly.

-1834 Cyrus McCormick- McCormick invented two reaping machines that helped to reduce strain on farmers in the 19th century. The first machine cut standing grain and swept it onto piles. It could do the work of 5 men using earlier cradles and harvesting devices. His next invention, which was patented in 1858, was a self-raking reaper that cut down the grain and put it on a canvas belt so that farmers could bundle it. He opened a reaper factory and created more inventions to better ease the work of farmers and laborers across the nation. Cumberland road (National Road) is completed

-1837 John Deere invents the steel plow- Deere designs a set of cast steel plows that could cut easier and made labor easier and faster for harvesting. Later on, external image elias-howe-sewing-machine.jpgJohn Deere created his own company which began producing plows for sale, which made it easier for farmers to obtain them.

-1846 Elias Howe invents the sewing machine- Howe invents the sewing machine, which increased textile production, especially in the New England region. The machine made it easier to produce textiles at a faster and cheaper rate.

external image P.833.896_Assembly-HighlandPark.gif-1858- First transatlantic telegraph cable unites Europe and the Americas- This telegraph cable stretched across the Atlantic Ocean, bridging communication between the United States and Europe. This new achievement greatly increased speed of communication.

-1908 Ford Assembly Line- The Ford Motor Company uses interchangeable parts to assemble cars from start to finish which led to mass production of the Model T. The assembly line also led to factories to rise.







Effects of the Market Revolution
Social divide (north v south [civil war]), manufacturers v commoners), decreased prices, increased transportation and more effective communication, racism towards immigrants (nativism), new women work force, social mobility, more entertainment and leisurely activities (including cockfighting, boxing, baseball, theater productions- few traveled).