Chapter 10 Key Terms & Documents


Key Terms

1. Market revolution: A time period between the war of 1812 and the American civil war where America began taking steps toward challenging the industrial nations of Europe for supremacy. Resulted in a drastic change in the manual labor system originating in the southern states that eventually spread to the rest of the world.
2. Urbanization: The growth of industries and factories along with an increase of population in the cities.
3. Nativism: A defense of native-born people and the hostility toward any foreign born peoples.
4. Know-nothing: a party of strong nativists that endorsed a list of demands that would weaken the influence of foreign born immigrants.
5. Steamboats: The way of transportation of goods in between the war of 1812 and the construction of canals starting with the Erie Canal in 1825.external image erieboat.jpg external image steamboats.jpg
6. Canal/ Erie Canal: Canals made shipping easier and cheaper; the Erie Canal attached the North West to the north east and made trading easier.
7. Railroads: Eventually overtook canals in significance of transporting goods.
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8. Telegraph: Samuel Moore invented in 1844 the problem solver to long range communicational problems. By 1860, more then 50,000 miles of wire connected the U.S. together under a strong system of communication involving Morse code.
9. Cylindrical press: An advancement to the printing press that made making newspapers easier then the printing press.Created by Robert Hoe in 1846 this invention revolutionized the production of newspapers by making it possibe to print larger numbers of papers very quickly.
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10. Corporation: Individual ownership and partnerships fell to corporations because the process to obtain a charter was simplified and made corporations more do-able.
11. Factory: Before the war of 1812 most products made in America were made in houses, and with inefficient machines. Gradually increasing technology changed all of that and made factories a much more profitable venture for entrepreneurs.
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12. Interchangeable parts: Originally the idea was applied only to guns, however, found its way to the factories in the form of clock making, locomotives, and farm tools.
13. Lowell system: The Waltham-Lowell System was a labor and production model employed in the United States, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry in the early 19th Century. Made possible by inventions such as the spinning jenny, spinning mule, and water frame in England around the time of the American Revolution, the textile industry was among the earliest mechanized industries, and models of production and labor sources were first explored here.
14. Deskilling: Technology began to take over production, and no longer were skilled workers necessary for the production of products such as weavers were no longer used, instead looms could, through simple process, be operated by simple people. external image women_switch_assembly.jpg
15 Commonwealth v. Hunt: The state court declared that unions were lawful organizations under the bill of rights "right to peacefully assemble". 16. Unions: Women created female protective unions to protect working women’s rights in the work place.
17. Women’s separate sphere: during the 1830's through the 1840's women began to develop their own culture and grow stronger friendships. Women began writing books as well.
18. McCormick reaper: an automatic reaper that more than doubled the ability to harvest wheat. More then 100,000 in use on western farms by 1860
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Document APPARTS

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Title: An Argument Against a Single Crop Economy
Author: Geogia Courier
An opposition agaist the establishment of a single crop economy makes this document very bias. Instead of support for the growth that the economy is experiencing, this document focuses on the negatives that can arrise and lays out a plethora of reason to turn towards economic diversification.
Place and Time: Georgia; June 21,1827
The fact that the document derives from a Georgia newspaper changes the meaning of this document. Cotton thrived in the south and during this period was the center of the cash crops. Because of the major dependence that the economy placed on the production of cotton, many southerners realized the danger that this exttreme of dependence could hold.
Prior Knowledge:
Some information that is helpful to know would be the differences in southern and Northern thought about running the economy. the agricultural northwest and Cyrus McCormick are just a few things that come to mind when reading this document. The importing of more slaves also came about bc of the cotton boom. This increase in slavery was not liked by everyone and also plays into why this document was created.
Audience:
This document was created to be seen by every American. However, because of its origin its mainly focused on the citizens of Georgia.
Reason:
This document was created as an attempt to persuade the American population to change its economic ways.Instead of singling on a single cash crop, this document asks for a diversification to keep the economy afloat.
The Main Idea:
" Let us go more on provision crops and less on cotton, because we have had everything poor and impoverished long enough."
Significance:
This document is significant because it shows an opposition to the great Market boom that struck the United States during this time. It shows that even during this time of great sucess many peple we still very unhappy. This document highlights the side of society that we normally wont be revealed in the textbook readings.




Title: The Argument For Free Public Schools
Author: Horace Mann, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education
This document is very bias as it supports the movement towards free education. the author makes it obvious by stating that education is an " absolute right" that every human being is intitled to.
Place And Time: Massachusetts, 1848
Prior Knowledge:
Some information that would be helpful to better understand this document would involve the idea of education of this time. Schools were supported by the wealthy. The reason the idea of public schooling arose was due to the increase of immigration. Their main purpose was to "Americanize" the increasing immigrant population. also schooling stood as a way for the upper and middle classes to gain control of the masses.
Audience:
The audience that Horace focuses on is the rest of the board of education and the governing body of the United States. The reason why he decides to gear his argument towards these groups of people is because during this period in time they possed the most strength to make his idea a reality. If it was just meant for the common man then much change would be seen.
Reason:
The reason for the development of this document is to bring reason behind the growing idea of free public education that in many who supported its eyes would better the nation.
The Main Idea:
" An educated people is always a more industrious and productive people. Intelligence is a primary ingredient in the wealth of nations..."
Significance:
This document is very significant in that it was created by Horace Mann. Between 1820-1860 the United States had transformed itself in many ways. Among those changes was that in the idea of education. Before the 1820's the idea of education was that of male white men who could afford schooling. However, with the extreme changes that came about during this time that idea shifted. This document helped Horace Mann develop the Massachusetts public schooling system that stood as a model for the rest of the nation to follow.




Title: Individual Change Versus Institutional Reform
Author: Orestes Brownson
Orestes Brownson posed as a very prominent voice in the idea of reform within the period before the Civil War.
Place And Time: 1840
This document appears during the time of the Market Revolution that swept across the United States.
Prior Knowledge:
To better understand this document one should have a clear understanding of Americas Economic Revolution and how it affected all levels of society. The spark of the Market Revolution and the changes between social grups that came about because of it would really benefit the reader's comprehension of this document. The antebellum era is a key segment of history where this arguement could have arisen during.
Audience:
The audience that Brownson is trying to address here is the governing body of the United States.
Reason:
The reason for why this document was created was to persuade the government of the best ways to achieve reform. In his assertans he mainly focusd on gaining justice for the growing class of poor working people.
The Main Idea:
" They tell us that we want not external changes, but internal; and therefore instead of disclaiming against society and seeking to disturb existing social arrangements, we should confine ourselves to the individual reason and conscience; seek mearly to lead the individual to repentance and to reformation of life...."
Significance:
The significance of this document is that it points out the inequality that existed within the United States bewteen the soical groups. The North and the South contradicted with eachother on this issue and this document gives us so insight on the reasons why.