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Monday, June 14

  1. page Anti-Federalists vs Federalists edited Federalists vs Anti Federalists The Federalists were a group that supported the Constitution and …
    Federalists vs Anti Federalists
    The Federalists were a group that supported the Constitution and favored a strong, centralized government with more powers than the previous Articles of Confederation. Their opposition was the Anti-Federalists, who advocated state rights and state sovereignty over a powerful federal government. The Anti-Federalists group formed in response to the push for the Constitution, which would increase the powers of the Federal government and infringe of the rights of the people according to them. The two factions would have a heavy debate over whether or not the Constitution should be ratified.
    The main proponents of the Federalists were George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, John Marshall and Alexander Hamilton. The Federalists argued that a stronger central government was necessary to maintain order and preserve the Union. They emphasized the many weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation that needed to be addressed and argued that the Constitution would fix its weaknesses. They saw the need for a federal government with broad powers, including the power to tax, regulate commerce, control currency, and pass laws "necessary and proper" for the good of the Union and its people. Unfortunately, this faded the popular idea that each state was to retain every power, jurisdiction, and right not delegated to the Congress as stipulated by the Articles of Confederation.
    The main proponents of the Anti-Federalists included Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, Patrick Henry, James Winthrop, and James Hancock. The Anti-Federalists argued that a stronger central government would destroy the very institution that formed from the Revolution (separation from a central, tyrannical power), limit democracy, and restrict and infringe on state rights. They believed that left unchecked, a powerful centralized government would collapse the liberties of Americans, though James Madison argued otherwise with the idea of checks and balances and the separation of powers as a system that would prevent despotism by any group. They predicted ramifications such as increases in taxes, the obliteration of the states, dictatorship of the government, the favoring of the rich over the common man, and the end to individual liberty. They backed the belief up with the mention that the Constitution contained no protection of individual rights and gave more central power than even what Britain previously had. They saw an inevitably of the a repeat of the past - a tyranny like that of Britain if the Federalists were to get their way and have the Constitution ratified.
    James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay of the Federalists published a series of persuasive essays known as "The Federalist Papers" for the purpose of getting the public to side with them by presenting coherent reasons for every provision of the Constitution. The essays were effective in that they would influence public opinion to shift towards the idea of a stable, centralized government.
    The Federalist Papers
    {http://www.luxlibertas.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/federalistpapers.jpg}
    The Anti-Federalists biggest complaint was that the Constitution had no Bill of Rights to protect the people - specifically from a tyranny like that of Britain before the Revolution. The Federalists, however, argued were against the bill of rights. They argued that since Congress would be elected be the people, they did not need to be protected against themselves. Furthermore, they thought it was better to assume that all rights were protected than to create a limited list of rights for which officials could then assert unlisted rights. To further appeased the public and the Anti However, they eventually compromised and promised the Anti-Federalists a bill of rights to facilitate the ratification of the Constitution. The Constitution would eventually be ratified in 1790 after a long, heated debate.
    {http://www.4jal.org/bill%20of%20rights%20scroll.JPG}
    Sources:
    AMSCO
    Textbook
    http://library.thinkquest.org/11572/creation/framing/feds.html
    http://law.jrank.org/pages/5603/Constitution-United-States-FEDERALISTS-VERSUS-ANTI-FEDERALISTS.html
    http://edsitement.neh.gov/ConstitutionDay/Federalist_Debates.html
    http://staff.gps.edu/mines/APUSH%20-antifederalists_vs_federalists.htm

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    7:57 am

Tuesday, June 8

  1. page Chapter 32- Nixon edited ... Nixon considered the construction of a new international order to be the most important job th…
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    Nixon considered the construction of a new international order to be the most important job that he intended to carry out. He believed that the world was becoming "multipolar," this means that it is run by many nations. Nixon and Kissinger believed that these nations could create a "balance of power."
    China and the Soviet Union
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    legitimate government.
    Nixon and Kissinger wanted to end this unacknowlegement, and China wanted to prevent a Soviet-American alliance against the Chinese, and to end chinese isolationism from the international arena.
    In 1972, Nixon went to China and ended the American animosity toward the Chinese. They started low-level diplomatic relations.
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    This settlement showed United States dependency of foriegn oil. By allowing Isreal to push into Egypt might have cut off American oppertunites for their oil. The Arab Nations then set in an oil embargo, had a tremendous impact on America. Therefore America could no longer interfere on the behalf of Isreal against the Arab Nations.
    The lesson of 1973 was that Third World Countries would no longer be passive and cooperative to bigger nations. Also, the United Sates could no longer depend on cheap, easy access to raw materials as it had in the past.
    Kunal- I added some pictures to the counter culture slide. You don't have to keep them its really up to you. I'm still working on vocab slide.
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    6:21 pm

Tuesday, June 1

  1. page America and the Waning of the Cold War edited ... VI. The First Gulf War I. The Fall of the Soviet Union ... had been banned {http://img.…
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    VI. The First Gulf War
    I. The Fall of the Soviet Union
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    had been banned {http://img.timeinc.net/time/poy2000/images/gorbachev.jpg} Gorbachevbanned for decades;
    II. Reagan and Gorbachev
    At a summit meeting with Reagan in Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1986, Gorbachev proposed reducing the nuclear arsenals of both sides by 50 percent or more, although continuing disputes over Reagan’s commitment to the SDI program prevented agreements.
    ...
    IV. The Election of 1988
    The Bush campaign was almost the most negative of the 20th century, with Bush attacking Dukakis by tying him to all the unpopular social and cultural stances Americans had come to identify with "liberals." It was also one of the most effective, although the listless, indecisive character of the Dukakis effort contributed to the Republican cause as well. Bush won the election with 54% of the popular vote to Dukakis 46%, and 426 electoral votes to Dukakis 112.
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    Bush Presidency {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/George_H._W._Bush%2C_President_of_the_United_States%2C_1989_official_portrait.jpg/519px-George_H._W._Bush%2C_President_of_the_United_States%2C_1989_official_portrait.jpg} Bush
    The Bush presidency was notable for the dramatic developments in international affairs with which it coincided and at times helped to advance, and for the absence of important initiatives or ideas on domestic issues. The broad popularity Bush enjoyed during his first three years in office was partly a result of his subdued, unthreading public image. On domestic issues, the Bush administration was less successful-partly because the president himself seemed to have little interest in promoting a domestic agenda and partly because he faced serious obstacles. In 1990, the president bowed to congressional pressure and agreed to a significant tax increase as part of a multi-year “budget package” designed to reduce the deficit.
    VI. The First Gulf War
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  2. page The Reagan Revolution edited ... III. "Supply Side" Economics IV. Fiscal Crisis V. Regean Reagen and the VI. So…
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    III. "Supply Side" Economics
    IV. Fiscal Crisis
    V. RegeanReagen and the
    VI. Sources
    I. The Reagan Coalition
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    values and commitments. {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/REAGANMONEYSPEECH2.jpg} Reaganomicscommitments.
    II. Reagan in the White House
    Reagan was the master of television, a gifted public speaker, and -in public at least- rugged, fearless, and seemingly impervious to danger or misfortune. He spent his many vacations on a California ranch, where he chopped wood and rode horses. At times, the president revealed a startling ignorance about the nature of his own policies or the actions of his subordinates.
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    Reagan’s 1980 campaign for the presidency had promised, among other things, to restore the economy to health by a bold experiment that became known as “supply-side” economics or, to some, “Reaganomics”. In its first months in office, accordingly, the new administration hastily assembled a legislative program based on the supply-side idea. The recession convinced many people, including some conservatives that the Reagan economic program failed. The gross national product had grown 3.6 percent in a year, the largest increase since the 1970s. The economy continued to grow, and both inflation and unemployment remained low through most of the decade. A worldwide “energy glut” and the virtual collapse of the OPEC cartel had produced at least a temporary end to the inflationary pressures of spiraling fuel costs.
    IV. The Fiscal Crisis
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    in federal subsidies {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/Ford_signing_accord_with_Brehznev%2C_November_24%2C_1974.jpg/800px-Ford_signing_accord_with_Brehznev%2C_November_24%2C_1974.jpg} Salt Talkssubsidies for low-income
    support.
    V. Reagan and the World
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  3. page The Rise of the New American Right edited ... VI. Sources I. The Sunbelt and its Politics ... White southerners equated {http://wpcon…
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    VI. Sources
    I. The Sunbelt and its Politics
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    White southerners equated {http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Map_of_USA_highlighting_Sun_Belt.png} Sunbeltequated the federal
    II. Religious Revivalism
    In the 1960s, many critics had predicted the virtual extinction of religious influence in American life. By early 1980s, more than 70 million Americans now described themselves as “born-again” Christians- men and women who had established a “direct personal relationship with Jesus”. For Jimmy Carter and for some others, evangelical Christianity had formed the basis for a commitment to racial and economic justice and to world peace. The Moral Majority, the Christian Coalition, and other organizations of similar inclination opposed federal interference in local affairs; denounced abortion, divorce, enterprise; and supported a strong American posture in the world.
    III. Emergence of the new right
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    1950s Ronald ReganReagan became a
    IV. The Tax Revolt
    At least equally important to the success of the new right was a new and potent conservative issue: the tax revolt. The biggest and most expensive programs-Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and others-had the broadest support. In Proposition 13 and similar initiatives, members of the right found a better way to discredit government than by attacking specific programs: attacking taxes.
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  4. page Politics and Diplomacy After Watergate edited ... Jimmy Carter assumed the presidency at a moment when the nation faced problems of staggering c…
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    Jimmy Carter assumed the presidency at a moment when the nation faced problems of staggering complexity and difficulty. He left office in 1981 one of the least popular presidents of the country. He surrounded himself in the White House with group of close-knit associates from Georgia; and in the beginning, at least, he seemed deliberately to spurn assistance from more experienced political figures. He moved first to reduce unemployment by raising public spending and cutting federal taxes. He appointed G. William Miller and then Paul Volcker, both conservative economists, to head the Federal Reserve Board, thus ensuring a policy of high interest rates and reduced currency supplies.
    IV. Human Rights and National Interests
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    among conservatives {http://autone.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/hostage8cy.jpg} Iran Hostage Crisiswhowho viewed the
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    bombers, and {http://autone.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/hostage8cy.jpg} Iran Hostage Crisis nuclear warheads
    V. Years of the Hostages
    By 1979, the Shah of Iran was hoping to make his nation a bulwark against Soviet expansion in the Middle East. In January 1979, the Shah fled the country. By late 1979, revolutionary chaos in Iran was making any normal relations impossible. In late October 1979, the deposed Shah arrived in New York to be treated for cancer. Days later, on November 4, an armed mob invaded the American embassy in Tehran, seized the diplomats and military personnel inside, and demanded the return of the Shah to Iran in exchange for their freedom. 53 Americans remained hostages in the embassy for over a year. Only weeks after the hostage seizure, on December 27, 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. The combination of domestic economic troubles and international crises created widespread anxiety, frustration, and anger in the United States-damaging President Carter already low stranding with the public, and giving added strength to an alternative political force that had already made great strides.
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  5. page Politics and Diplomacy After Watergate edited ... VI. Sources I. Introduction ... to answer {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/…
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    VI. Sources
    I. Introduction
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    to answer {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg/488px-JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg} Jimmy Carter those questions.
    II. The Ford Custodianship
    Gerald Ford inherited the presidency under unenviable circumstances. He had to try to rebuild confidence in the government after Watergate and restore economic prosperity in the midst of difficult domestic and international conditions. He enjoyed some success in the first of theses efforts but very little in the second. The new president's effort to establish his integrity was ruined by his pardoning of Nixon. In the aftermath of the Arab oil embargo of 1973, the OPEC cartel began to raise the price of oil-by 400 percent in 1974 alone. Ford retained Henry Kissinger as secretary of state and continued the general policies of the Nixon years. Late in 1974, Ford met with Leonid Brezhnev at Vladivostok in Siberia and signed an arms control accord that was to serve as the basis for SALT II, thus achieving a goal the Nixon administration had long sought.
    ...
    Jimmy Carter assumed the presidency at a moment when the nation faced problems of staggering complexity and difficulty. He left office in 1981 one of the least popular presidents of the country. He surrounded himself in the White House with group of close-knit associates from Georgia; and in the beginning, at least, he seemed deliberately to spurn assistance from more experienced political figures. He moved first to reduce unemployment by raising public spending and cutting federal taxes. He appointed G. William Miller and then Paul Volcker, both conservative economists, to head the Federal Reserve Board, thus ensuring a policy of high interest rates and reduced currency supplies.
    IV. Human Rights and National Interests
    ...
    among conservatives who {http://autone.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/hostage8cy.jpg} Iran Hostage Crisiswho viewed the
    V. Years of the Hostages
    By 1979, the Shah of Iran was hoping to make his nation a bulwark against Soviet expansion in the Middle East. In January 1979, the Shah fled the country. By late 1979, revolutionary chaos in Iran was making any normal relations impossible. In late October 1979, the deposed Shah arrived in New York to be treated for cancer. Days later, on November 4, an armed mob invaded the American embassy in Tehran, seized the diplomats and military personnel inside, and demanded the return of the Shah to Iran in exchange for their freedom. 53 Americans remained hostages in the embassy for over a year. Only weeks after the hostage seizure, on December 27, 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. The combination of domestic economic troubles and international crises created widespread anxiety, frustration, and anger in the United States-damaging President Carter already low stranding with the public, and giving added strength to an alternative political force that had already made great strides.
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    8:51 pm

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